blank'/> SHARING CATHOLIC TRUTH: THE POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION AMORIS LÆTITIA --- THE JOY OF LOVE IN THE FAMILY - IL-FERĦ TAL-IMĦABBA

Saturday, April 09, 2016

THE POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION AMORIS LÆTITIA --- THE JOY OF LOVE IN THE FAMILY - IL-FERĦ TAL-IMĦABBA

 

videos playlist:-
Pope Francis: THE POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION AMORIS LAETITIA - THE JOY OF LOVE IN THE FAMILY
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLEYDcemW6Gv-l30nZXWmvJROKE32YBE0p





Pope Francis: THE POST-SYNODAL APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION AMORIS LÆTITIA.pdf
 
 
 

============
============
============



Archbishop Charles J. Scicluna and Bishop Mario Grech





Guidelines by the Bishops for the Application of Chapter Eight of Amoris Lætitia  - January 13, 2017
 
 
CRITERIA FOR THE APPLICATION OF CHAPTER VIII OF AMORIS LÆTITIA  - January 13, 2017
 

CRITERIA FOR THE APPLICATION OF CHAPTER VIII OF AMORIS LÆTITIA January 2017
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 1 Dear Brother in the Priesthood, Like the star which led the Magi towards their encounter with Jesus, the Apostolic Exhortation The Joy of Love enlightens our families in their journey towards Jesus as his disciples. This message is also relevant to the couples and families who find themselves in complex situations, especially those involving separated or divorced persons who have entered a new union. Although they may have “lost” their first marriage, some of these persons have not “lost” their hope in Jesus. Some of these earnestly desire to live in harmony with God and with the Church, so much so, that they are asking us what they can do in order to be able to celebrate the sacraments of Reconciliation and the Eucharist. Akin to the Magi, who took a different route back home after meeting Jesus (see Mt 2, 12), these persons – at times after a strenuous and difficult journey – are able to meet Christ who offers them a future even when it is impossible for them to follow the same route as before. Through accompaniment and honest discernment, God is able to open up new routes for these persons, even if their previous journey may have been one of “darkness”, marked with past mistakes or sad experiences of betrayal and abandonment. In their encounter with Christ and with His Church, these people find a “light” that illumines their present life and encourages them to return to God with hope and courage.
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 2 Therefore, in line with the directions given by Pope Francis, we, the Bishops of Malta and Gozo, are offering these guidelines to the priests in our dioceses, in order to accompany these people through “a responsible personal and pastoral discernment” to an awareness of their life situation in the light of Jesus (AL 300). It is important that the following guidelines be read in the light of the indicated references: 1.Above all, we must always keep in mind that our pastoral ministry towards persons who live in complex family situations, is the same ministry of the Church who is Mother and Teacher. As priests, we have the duty to enlighten consciences by proclaiming Christ and the full ideal of the Gospel. At the same time, in the footsteps of Christ himself, we have the duty to exercise the “art of accompaniment” and to become a source of trust, hope, and inclusion for those who request to see Jesus (see Jn 12, 21), especially for those persons who are most vulnerable (see AL, 291, 296, 308; EG 169). In the case of couples with children, this inclusion is necessary not only for the couple but also for “the care and Christian upbringing of their children, who ought to be considered most important” (AL 299; see also AL, 245-246). 2.When we meet or come to know of persons who find themselves in so called “irregular” situations, we need to commit ourselves to enter in dialogue with them and to come to know them in a spirit of authentic charity. If, subsequently, they show a genuine desire or
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 3 accept to engage in a serious process of personal discernment about their situation, we should accompany them willingly on this journey, with true respect, care and attention. They “should be made to feel part of the Church. ‘They are not excommunicated’ and they should not be treated as such, since they remain part of the ecclesial community’” (AL 243). Throughout this process, our role is not simply that of granting permission for these people to receive the sacraments, or to offer “easy recipes” (see AL 298), or to substitute their conscience. Our role is patiently to help them to form and enlighten their own conscience, in order that they themselves may be able to make an honest decision before God and act according to the greatest good possible (see AL 37). 3.Before dealing with the pastoral care of those disciples of the Lord that have gone through the experience of failure in their marriage and are now living in a new relationship, we would like to address the situation of those who cohabit or who have only married civilly. These situations call for “pastoral care that is merciful and helpful” (AL 293) and “require a constructive response seeking to transform them into opportunities that can lead to the full reality of marriage and family in conformity with the Gospel” (AL 294). In pastoral discernment it is important to distinguish between one situation and another. In some cases, “the choice of a civil marriage or, in many cases, of simple cohabitation, is often not motivated by prejudice or
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 4 resistance to a sacramental union, but by cultural or contingent situations” (AL 294) and, therefore, the degree of moral responsibility is not the same for all cases. “Let us remember that a small step, in the midst of great human limitations, can be more pleasing to God than a life which appears outwardly in order, but moves through the day without confronting great difficulties” (AL 305, EG 45). 4.We now address our ministry with persons who are either separated and divorced, who have entered a new union. If during the discernment process with these people, a reasonable doubt arises concerning the validity or consummation of their canonical marriage, we should propose that these people make a request for a declaration of the nullity or dissolution of their marriage bond. 5.Throughout this discernment, an adequate distinction should be made between one situation and another, because not all cases are the same. “One thing is a second union consolidated over time, with new children, proven fidelity, generous selfgiving, Christian commitment, a consciousness of its irregularity and of the great difficulty of going back without feeling in conscience that one would fall into new sins. The Church acknowledges situations ‘where, for serious reasons, such as the children’s upbringing, a man and woman cannot satisfy the obligation to separate.’ There are also the cases of those who made every effort to save their first marriage and were unjustly
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 5 abandoned, or of ‘those who have entered into a second union for the sake of the children’s upbringing, and are sometimes subjectively certain in conscience that their previous and irreparably broken marriage had never been valid.’ Another thing is a new union arising from a recent divorce, with all the suffering and confusion which this entails for children and entire families, or the case of someone who has consistently failed in his obligations to the family. It must remain clear that this is not the ideal which the Gospel proposes for marriage and the family” (AL 298). 6.It would be appropriate that throughout this process of discernment, we accompany these people to make “an examination of conscience through moments of reflection and repentance”, in which they “should ask themselves: how did they act towards their children when the conjugal union entered into crisis; whether or not they made attempts at reconciliation; what has become of the abandoned party; what consequences the new relationship has on the rest of the family and the community of the faithful; and what example is being set for young people who are preparing for marriage” (AL 300). This applies in a special way for those cases in which a person acknowledges his or her own responsibility for the failure of the marriage. 7.Throughout the discernment process, we need to weigh the moral responsibility in particular situations, with due consideration to the conditioning restraints and attenuating circumstances. Indeed, “factors may exist
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 6 which limit the ability to make a decision,” (AL 301) or even diminish imputability or responsibility for an action. These include ignorance, inadvertence, violence, fear, affective immaturity, the persistence of certain habits, the state of anxiety, inordinate attachments, and other psychological and social factors (see AL 302; CCC 1735, 2352). As a result of these conditioning restraints and attenuating circumstances, the Pope teaches that “it can no longer simply be said that all those in any ‘irregular situation are living in a state of mortal sin and are deprived of sanctifying grace” (AL 301). “It is possible that in an objective situation of sin – which may not be subjectively culpable, or fully such – a person can be living in God’s grace, can love and can also grow in the life of grace and charity, while receiving the Church’s help to this end” (AL 305). This discernment acquires significant importance since, as the Pope teaches, in some cases this help can include the help of the sacraments (see AL, note 351). 8.“By thinking that everything is black and white, we sometimes close off the way of grace and of growth, and discourage paths of sanctification which give glory to God” (AL 305). This calls for more prudent instruction in the law of gradualness, (see AL 295) in order to discern, the presence, the grace and the working of God in all situations, and help people approach closer to God, even when not “not in a position to understand, appreciate, or fully carry out the objective demands of the law” (AL 295).
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 7 9.Throughout the discernment process, we should also examine the possibility of conjugal continence. Despite the fact that this ideal is not at all easy, there may be couples who, with the help of grace, practice this virtue without putting at risk other aspects of their life together. On the other hand, there are complex situations where the choice of living “as brothers and sisters” becomes humanly impossible and give rise to greater harm (see AL, note 329). 10.If, as a result of the process of discernment, undertaken with “humility, discretion and love for the Church and her teaching, in a sincere search for God’s will and a desire to make a more perfect response to it” (AL 300), a separated or divorced person who is living in a new relationship manages, with an informed and enlightened conscience, to acknowledge and believe that he or she are at peace with God, he or she cannot be precluded from participating in the sacraments of Reconciliation and the Eucharist (see AL, notes 336 and 351). 11.During this discernment process, we should examine with these people, how “their participation can be expressed in different ecclesial services”, particularly within “the liturgical, pastoral, educational and institutional frameworks” (AL 299). One should not exclude that these people be considered suitable to be godparents. On the other hand, “if someone flaunts an objective sin as if it were part of the Christian ideal, or wants to impose something other than what the
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 8 Church teaches, he or she can in no way presume to teach or preach to others”. It is our duty to preach anew “the proclamation of the Gospel message and its call to conversion”. Moreover, there could also be ways in which the person participates in the life of the community, such as in the social field, in prayer meetings, or as suggested by his or her personal initiative, together with our discernment (see AL 297). 12.In this journey of accompaniment, we must listen to and give value to the suffering of the persons who are innocent victims to separation, divorce or abandonment. Conditions of poverty make this pain even more traumatic. Forgiving an injustice suffered and endured is far from easy, but grace makes this journey possible (see AL 242). 13.While exercising our ministry, we must be careful to avoid falling into extremes: into extreme rigour on the one hand, and laxity on the other. This process should be an invitation to harness certain attitudes, such as pastoral charity, honesty, discretion, an ongoing conversion, and love for the Church and her teaching (see AL 267, 300); attention to what God made “from the beginning” (see AL 61-66); humility in order to shed our sandals in front of the sacred ground of the other (see Ex 3, 5; EG 169); the wish sincerely to seek God’s will, and to be able to present the fragrance of Christ’s presence and his personal gaze (see EG 169).
Criteria for the Application of Chapter VIII of Amoris Lætitia 9 14.In order to avoid any cause for scandal or confusion among the faithful (see AL 299), we must do our utmost in order to inform ourselves and our communities by studying and promoting the teachings of Amoris Lætitia. This teaching requires us to undergo a “pastoral conversion” (EG 25). Together with the Pope, we do understand those who would prefer a “more rigorous pastoral care”, but together with him, we believe that “Jesus wants a Church attentive to the goodness which the Holy Spirit sows in the midst of human weakness, a Mother who, while clearly expressing her objective teaching, ‘always does what good she can, even if in the process, her shoes get soiled by the mud of the street’” (AL 308). We pray to God, with the intercession of the Holy Family of Nazareth, that through her priests, the Church in Malta and Gozo can indeed be a messenger that helps today’s Christians to be open to God’s voice in their conscience and, thereby, see the new path opening before them, leading from darkness to light. Today, 8th January 2017, Solemnity of the Epiphany of the Lord.  Charles J. Scicluna  Mario Grech Archbishop of Malta Bishop of Gozo
CHAPTER VIII OF POPE FRANCIS’ APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION AMORIS LÆTITIA ACCOMPANYING, DISCERNING AND INTEGRATING WEAKNESS
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 1 291. The Synod Fathers stated that, although the Church realizes that any breach of the marriage bond “is against the will of God”, she is also “conscious of the frailty of many of her children”.1 Illumined by the gaze of Jesus Christ, “she turns with love to those who participate in her life in an incomplete manner, recognizing that the grace of God works also in their lives by giving them the courage to do good, to care for one another in love and to be of service to the community in which they live and work”.2 This approach is also confirmed by our celebration of this Jubilee Year devoted to mercy. Although she constantly holds up the call to perfection and asks for a fuller response to God, “the Church must accompany with attention and care the weakest of her children, who show signs of a wounded and troubled love, by restoring in them hope and confidence, like the beacon of a lighthouse in a port or a torch carried among the people to enlighten those who have lost their way or who are in the midst of a storm”.3 Let us not forget that the Church’s task is often like that of a field hospital. 292. Christian marriage, as a reflection of the union between Christ and his Church, is fully realized in the union between a man and a woman who give themselves to each other in a free, faithful and exclusive love, who belong to each other until death and are open to the 1 Relatio Synodi 2014, 24. 2 Ibid. 25. 3 Ibid. 28.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 2 transmission of life, and are consecrated by the sacrament, which grants them the grace to become a domestic church and a leaven of new life for society. Some forms of union radically contradict this ideal, while others realize it in at least a partial and analogous way. The Synod Fathers stated that the Church does not disregard the constructive elements in those situations which do not yet or no longer correspond to her teaching on marriage.4 Gradualness in pastoral care 293. The Fathers also considered the specific situation of a merely civil marriage or, with due distinction, even simple cohabitation, noting that “when such unions attain a particular stability, legally recognized, are characterized by deep affection and responsibility for their offspring, and demonstrate an ability to overcome trials, they can provide occasions for pastoral care with a view to the eventual celebration of the sacrament of marriage”.5 On the other hand, it is a source of concern that many young people today distrust marriage and live together, putting off indefinitely the commitment of marriage, while yet others break a commitment already made and immediately assume a new one. “As members of the Church, they too need pastoral care that is merciful and helpful”.6 For the 4 Cf. ibid., 41, 43; Relatio Finalis 2015, 70. 5 Ibid., 27. 6 Ibid., 26.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 3 Church’s pastors are not only responsible for promoting Christian marriage, but also the “pastoral discernment of the situations of a great many who no longer live this reality. Entering into pastoral dialogue with these persons is needed to distinguish elements in their lives that can lead to a greater openness to the Gospel of marriage in its fullness”.7 In this pastoral discernment, there is a need “to identify elements that can foster evangelization and human and spiritual growth”.8 294. “The choice of a civil marriage or, in many cases, of simple cohabitation, is often not motivated by prejudice or resistance to a sacramental union, but by cultural or contingent situations”.9 In such cases, respect also can be shown for those signs of love which in some way reflect God’s own love.10 We know that there is “a continual increase in the number of those who, after having lived together for a long period, request the celebration of marriage in Church. Simply to live together is often a choice based on a general attitude opposed to anything institutional or definitive; it can also be done while awaiting more security in life (a steady job and steady income). In some countries, de facto unions are very numerous, not only because of a rejection of values concerning the family and matrimony, but primarily 7 Ibid., 41. 8 Ibid. 9 Relatio Finalis 2015, 71. 10 Cf. ibid.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 4 because celebrating a marriage is considered too expensive in the social circumstances. As a result, material poverty drives people into de facto unions”.11 Whatever the case, “all these situations require a constructive response seeking to transform them into opportunities that can lead to the full reality of marriage and family in conformity with the Gospel. These couples need to be welcomed and guided patiently and discreetly”.12 That is how Jesus treated the Samaritan woman (cf. Jn 4:1-26): he addressed her desire for true love, in order to free her from the darkness in her life and to bring her to the full joy of the Gospel. 295. Along these lines, Saint John Paul II proposed the so-called “law of gradualness” in the knowledge that the human being “knows, loves and accomplishes moral good by different stages of growth”.13 This is not a “gradualness of law” but rather a gradualness in the prudential exercise of free acts on the part of subjects who are not in a position to understand, appreciate, or fully carry out the objective demands of the law. For the law is itself a gift of God which points out the way, a gift for everyone without exception; it can be followed with the help of grace, even though each human being “advances gradually with the progressive integration of the gifts of God and the demands of God’s 11 Relatio Synodi 2014, 42. 12 Ibid., 43. 13 Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio (22 November 1981), 34: AAS 74 (1982), 123.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 5 definitive and absolute love in his or her entire personal and social life”.14 The discernment of “irregular” situations 15 296. The Synod addressed various situations of weakness or imperfection. Here I would like to reiterate something I sought to make clear to the whole Church, lest we take the wrong path: “There are two ways of thinking which recur throughout the Church’s history: casting off and reinstating. The Church’s way, from the time of the Council of Jerusalem, has always always been the way of Jesus, the way of mercy and reinstatement… The way of the Church is not to condemn anyone for ever; it is to pour out the balm of God’s mercy on all those who ask for it with a sincere heart… For true charity is always unmerited, unconditional and gratuitous”.16 Consequently, there is a need “to avoid judgements which do not take into account the complexity of various situations” and “to be attentive, by necessity, to how people experience distress because of their condition”.17 14 Ibid., 9: AAS 74 (1982), 90. 15 Cf. Catechesis (24 June 2015): L’Osservatore Romano, 25 June 2015, p. 8. 16 Homily at Mass Celebrated with the New Cardinals (15 February 2015): AAS 107 (2015), 257. 17 Relatio Finalis 2015, 51.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 6 297. It is a matter of reaching out to everyone, of needing to help each person find his or her proper way of participating in the ecclesial community and thus to experience being touched by an “unmerited, unconditional and gratuitous” mercy. No one can be condemned for ever, because that is not the logic of the Gospel! Here I am not speaking only of the divorced and remarried, but of everyone, in whatever situation they find themselves. Naturally, if someone flaunts an objective sin as if it were part of the Christian ideal, or wants to impose something other than what the Church teaches, he or she can in no way presume to teach or preach to others; this is a case of something which separates from the community (cf. Mt 18:17). Such a person needs to listen once more to the Gospel message and its call to conversion. Yet even for that person there can be some way of taking part in the life of community, whether in social service, prayer meetings or another way that his or her own initiative, together with the discernment of the parish priest, may suggest. As for the way of dealing with different “irregular” situations, the Synod Fathers reached a general consensus, which I support: “In considering a pastoral approach towards people who have contracted a civil marriage, who are divorced and remarried, or simply living together, the Church has the responsibility of helping them understand the divine pedagogy of grace in their lives and offering them assistance so they can reach the fullness of God’s plan for them”,18 something which is always possible by the power of the Holy Spirit. 18 Relatio Synodi 2014, 25.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 7 298. The divorced who have entered a new union, for example, can find themselves in a variety of situations, which should not be pigeonholed or fit into overly rigid classifications leaving no room for a suitable personal and pastoral discernment. One thing is a second union consolidated over time, with new children, proven fidelity, generous self giving, Christian commitment, a consciousness of its irregularity and of the great difficulty of going back without feeling in conscience that one would fall into new sins. The Church acknowledges situations “where, for serious reasons, such as the children’s upbringing, a man and woman cannot satisfy the obligation to separate”.19 There are also the cases of those who made every effort to save their first marriage and were unjustly abandoned, or of “those who have entered into a second union for the sake of the children’s upbringing, and are sometimes subjectively certain in conscience that their previous and irreparably broken marriage had never been valid”.20 Another thing is a new union arising from a recent divorce, with all the suffering and confusion which this entails for children and entire 19 John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio (22 November 1981), 84: AAS 74 (1982), 186. In such situations, many people, knowing and accepting the possibility of living “as brothers and sisters” which the Church offers them, point out that if certain expressions of intimacy are lacking, “it often happens that faithfulness is endangered and the good of the children suffers” (Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 51). 20 Ibid.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 8 families, or the case of someone who has consistently failed in his obligations to the family. It must remain clear that this is not the ideal which the Gospel proposes for marriage and the family. The Synod Fathers stated that the discernment of pastors must always take place “by adequately distinguishing”,21 with an approach which “carefully discerns situations”.22 We know that no “easy recipes” exist.23 299. I am in agreement with the many Synod Fathers who observed that “the baptized who are divorced and civilly remarried need to be more fully integrated into Christian communities in the variety of ways possible, while avoiding any occasion of scandal. The logic of integration is the key to their pastoral care, a care which would allow them not only to realize that they belong to the Church as the body of Christ, but also to know that they can have a joyful and fruitful experience in it. They are baptized; they are brothers and sisters; the Holy Spirit pours into their hearts gifts and talents for the good of all. Their participation can be expressed in different ecclesial services, which necessarily requires discerning which of the various forms of exclusion currently practised in the liturgical, pastoral, educational and institutional framework, can be surmounted. Such persons need to feel 21 Relatio Synodi 2014, 26. 22 Ibid., 45. 23 Benedict XVI, Address to the Seventh World Meeting of Families in Milan (2 June 2012), Response n. 5: Insegnamenti VIII/1 (2012), 691.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 9 not as excommunicated members of the Church, but instead as living members, able to live and grow in the Church and experience her as a mother who welcomes them always, who takes care of them with affection and encourages them along the path of life and the Gospel. This integration is also needed in the care and Christian upbringing of their children, who ought to be considered most important”.24 300. If we consider the immense variety of concrete situations such as those I have mentioned, it is understandable that neither the Synod nor this Exhortation could be expected to provide a new set of general rules, canonical in nature and applicable to all cases. What is possible is simply a renewed encouragement to undertake a responsible personal and pastoral discernment of particular cases, one which would recognize that, since “the degree of responsibility is not equal in all cases”,25 the consequences or effects of a rule need not necessarily always be the same.26 Priests have the duty to “accompany [the divorced and remarried] in helping them to understand their situation according to the teaching of the Church and the guidelines of the bishop. 24 Relatio Finalis 2015, 84. 25 Ibid., 51. 26 This is also the case with regard to sacramental discipline, since discernment can recognize that in a particular situation no grave fault exists. In such cases, what is found in another document applies: cf. Evangelii Gaudium (24 November 2013), 44 and 47: AAS 105 (2013), 1038-1040.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 10 Useful in this process is an examination of conscience through moments of reflection and repentance. The divorced and remarried should ask themselves: how did they act towards their children when the conjugal union entered into crisis; whether or not they made attempts at reconciliation; what has become of the abandoned party; what consequences the new relationship has on the rest of the family and the community of the faithful; and what example is being set for young people who are preparing for marriage. A sincere reflection can strengthen trust in the mercy of God which is not denied anyone”.27 What we are speaking of is a process of accompaniment and discernment which “guides the faithful to an awareness of their situation before God. Conversation with the priest, in the internal forum, contributes to the formation of a correct judgment on what hinders the possibility of a fuller participation in the life of the Church and on what steps can foster it and make it grow. Given that gradualness is not in the law itself (cf. Familiaris Consortio, 34), this discernment can never prescind from the Gospel demands of truth and charity, as proposed by the Church. For this discernment to happen, the following conditions must necessarily be present: humility, discretion and love for the Church and her teaching, in a sincere search for God’s will and a desire to make a more perfect response to it”.28 These attitudes are essential for avoiding the grave danger of misunderstandings, such as the notion that any priest can 27 Relatio Finalis 2015, 85. 28 Ibid., 86.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 11 quickly grant “exceptions”, or that some people can obtain sacramental privileges in exchange for favours. When a responsible and tactful person, who does not presume to put his or her own desires ahead of the common good of the Church, meets with a pastor capable of acknowledging the seriousness of the matter before him, there can be no risk that a specific discernment may lead people to think that the Church maintains a double standard. Mitigating factors in pastoral discernment 301. For an adequate understanding of the possibility and need of special discernment in certain “irregular” situations, one thing must always be taken into account, lest anyone think that the demands of the Gospel are in any way being compromised. The Church possesses a solid body of reflection concerning mitigating factors and situations. Hence it is can no longer simply be said that all those in any “irregular” situation are living in a state of mortal sin and are deprived of sanctifying grace. More is involved here than mere ignorance of the rule. A subject may know full well the rule, yet have great difficulty in understanding “its inherent values”,29 or be in a concrete situation which does not allow him or her to act differently and decide otherwise without further sin. As the Synod Fathers put it, “factors may exist which limit the ability to 29 John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio (22 November 1981), 33: AAS 74 (1982), 121.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 12 make a decision”.30 Saint Thomas Aquinas himself recognized that someone may possess grace and charity, yet not be able to exercise any one of the virtues well;31 in other words, although someone may possess all the infused moral virtues, he does not clearly manifest the existence of one of them, because the outward practice of that virtue is rendered difficult: “Certain saints are said not to possess certain virtues, in so far as they experience difficulty in the acts of those virtues, even though they have the habits of all the virtues”.32 302. The Catechism of the Catholic Church clearly mentions these factors: “imputability and responsibility for an action can be diminished or even nullified by ignorance, inadvertence, duress, fear, habit, inordinate attachments, and other psychological or social factors”.33 In another paragraph, the Catechism refers once again to circumstances which mitigate moral responsibility, and mentions at length “affective immaturity, force of acquired habit, conditions of anxiety or other psychological or social 30 Relatio Finalis 2015, 51. 31 Cf. Summa Theologiae I-II, q. 65, art. 3 ad 2; De Malo, q. 2, art. 2. 32 Ibid., ad 3. 33 No. 1735.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 13 factors that lessen or even extenuate moral culpability”.34 For this reason, a negative judgment about an objective situation does not imply a judgment about the imputability or culpability of the person involved.35 On the basis of these convictions, I consider very fitting what many Synod Fathers wanted to affirm: “Under certain circumstances people find it very difficult to act differently. Therefore, while upholding a general rule, it is necessary to recognize that responsibility with respect to certain actions or decisions is not the same in all cases. Pastoral discernment, while taking into account a person’s properly formed conscience, must take responsibility for these situations. Even the consequences of actions taken are not necessarily the same in all cases”.36 34 Ibid., 2352; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration on Euthanasia Iura et Bona (5 May 1980), II: AAS 72 (1980), 546; John Paul II, in his critique of the category of “fundamental option”, recognized that “doubtless there can occur situations which are very complex and obscure from a psychological viewpoint, and which have an influence on the sinner’s subjective culpability” (Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia [2 December 1984], 17: AAS 77 [1985], 223). 35 Cf. Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, Declaration Concerning the Admission to Holy Communion of Faithful Who are Divorced and Remarried (24 June 2000), 2. 36 Relatio Finalis 2015, 85.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 14 303. Recognizing the influence of such concrete factors, we can add that individual conscience needs to be better incorporated into the Church’s praxis in certain situations which do not objectively embody our understanding of marriage. Naturally, every effort should be made to encourage the development of an enlightened conscience, formed and guided by the responsible and serious discernment of one’s pastor, and to encourage an ever greater trust in God’s grace. Yet conscience can do more than recognize that a given situation does not correspond objectively to the overall demands of the Gospel. It can also recognize with sincerity and honesty what for now is the most generous response which can be given to God, and come to see with a certain moral security that it is what God himself is asking amid the concrete complexity of one’s limits, while yet not fully the objective ideal. In any event, let us recall that this discernment is dynamic; it must remain ever open to new stages of growth and to new decisions which can enable the ideal to be more fully realized. Rules and discernment 304. It is reductive simply to consider whether or not an individual’s actions correspond to a general law or rule, because that is not enough to discern and ensure full fidelity to God in the concrete life of a human being. I earnestly ask that we always recall a teaching of Saint Thomas Aquinas and learn to incorporate it in our pastoral discernment: “Although there is necessity in the general
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 15 principles, the more we descend to matters of detail, the more frequently we encounter defects… In matters of action, truth or practical rectitude is not the same for all, as to matters of detail, but only as to the general principles; and where there is the same rectitude in matters of detail, it is not equally known to all… The principle will be found to fail, according as we descend further into detail”.37 It is true that general rules set forth a good which can never be disregarded or neglected, but in their formulation they cannot provide absolutely for all particular situations. At the same time, it must be said that, precisely for that reason, what is part of a practical discernment in particular circumstances cannot be elevated to the level of a rule. That would not only lead to an intolerable casuistry, but would endanger the very values which must be preserved with special care.38 305. For this reason, a pastor cannot feel that it is enough simply to apply moral laws to those living in “irregular” situations, as if they were stones to throw at people’s lives. This would bespeak the closed heart of one used to hiding behind the Church’s teachings, “sitting on the chair of Moses and judging at times with superiority and 37 Summa Theologiae, I-II, q. 94, art. 4. 38 In another text, referring to the general knowledge of the rule and the particular knowledge of practical discernment, Saint Thomas states that “if only one of the two is present, it is preferable that it be the knowledge of the particular reality, which is closer to the act”: Sententia libri Ethicorum, VI, 6 (ed. Leonina, t. XLVII, 354.)
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 16 superficiality difficult cases and wounded families”.39 Along these same lines, the International Theological Commission has noted that “natural law could not be presented as an already established set of rules that impose themselves a priori on the moral subject; rather, it is a source of objective inspiration for the deeply personal process of making decisions”.40 Because of forms of conditioning and mitigating factors, it is possible that in an objective situation of sin - which may not be subjectively culpable, or fully such - a person can be living in God’s grace, can love and can also grow in the life of grace and charity, while receiving the Church’s help to this end.41 Discernment must help to find possible ways of responding to God and growing in the midst of limits. By thinking that everything is black and white, we sometimes close off the way of grace and of growth, and discourage paths of sanctification which give glory to God. Let us remember that “a small step, in the midst of great human limitations, 39 Address for the Conclusion of the Fourteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops (24 October 2015): L’Osservatore Romano, 26-27 October 2015, p. 13. 40 International Theological Commission, In Search of a Universal Ethic: A New Look at Natural Law (2009), 59. 41 In certain cases, this can include the help of the sacraments. Hence, “I want to remind priests that the confessional must not be a torture chamber, but rather an encounter with the Lord’s mercy” (Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium [24 November 2013], 44: AAS 105 [2013], 1038). I would also point out that the Eucharist “is not a prize for the perfect, but a powerful medicine and nourishment for the weak” (ibid., 47: 1039).
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 17 can be more pleasing to God than a life which appears outwardly in order, but moves through the day without confronting great difficulties”.42 The practical pastoral care of ministers and of communities must not fail to embrace this reality. 306. In every situation, when dealing with those who have difficulties in living God’s law to the full, the invitation to pursue the via caritatis must be clearly heard. Fraternal charity is the first law of Christians (cf. Jn 15:12; Gal 5:14). Let us not forget the reassuring words of Scripture: “Maintain constant love for one another, for love covers a multitude of sins” (1 Pet 4:8); “Atone for your sins with righteousness, and your iniquities with mercy to the oppressed, so that your prosperity may be prolonged” (Dan 4:24[27]); “As water extinguishes a blazing fire, so almsgiving atones for sins” (Sir 3:30). This is also what Saint Augustine teaches: “Just as, at the threat of a fire, we would run for water to extinguish it… so too, if the flame of sin rises from our chaff and we are troubled, if the chance to perform a work of mercy is offered us, let us rejoice in it, as if it were a fountain offered us to extinguish the blaze”.43 42 Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium (24 November 2013), 44: AAS 105 (2013), 1038-1039. 43 De Catechizandis Rudibus, I, 14, 22: PL 40, 327; cf. Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium (24 November 2013), 194: AAS 105 (2013), 1101.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 18 The logic of pastoral mercy 307. In order to avoid all misunderstanding, I would point out that in no way must the Church desist from proposing the full ideal of marriage, God’s plan in all its grandeur: “Young people who are baptized should be encouraged to understand that the sacrament of marriage can enrich their prospects of love and that they can be sustained by the grace of Christ in the sacrament and by the possibility of participating fully in the life of the Church”.44 A lukewarm attitude, any kind of relativism, or an undue reticence in proposing that ideal, would be a lack of fidelity to the Gospel and also of love on the part of the Church for young people themselves. To show understanding in the face of exceptional situations never implies dimming the light of the fuller ideal, or proposing less than what Jesus offers to the human being. Today, more important than the pastoral care of failures is the pastoral effort to strengthen marriages and thus to prevent their breakdown. 308. At the same time, from our awareness of the weight of mitigating circumstances - psychological, historical and even biological - it follows that “without detracting from the evangelical ideal, there is a need to accompany with mercy and patience the eventual stages of personal growth as these progressively appear”, making room for “the Lord’s mercy, which spurs us on to do our best”.45 I 44 Relatio Synodi 2014, 26. 45 Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium (24 November 2013), 44: AAS 105 (2013), 1038.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 19 understand those who prefer a more rigorous pastoral care which leaves no room for confusion. But I sincerely believe that Jesus wants a Church attentive to the goodness which the Holy Spirit sows in the midst of human weakness, a Mother who, while clearly expressing her objective teaching, “always does what good she can, even if in the process, her shoes get soiled by the mud of the street”.46 The Church’s pastors, in proposing to the faithful the full ideal of the Gospel and the Church’s teaching, must also help them to treat the weak with compassion, avoiding aggravation or unduly harsh or hasty judgements. The Gospel itself tells us not to judge or condemn (cf. Mt 7:1; Lk 6:37). Jesus “expects us to stop looking for those personal or communal niches which shelter us from the maelstrom of human misfortune, and instead to enter into the reality of other people’s lives and to know the power of tenderness. Whenever we do so, our lives become wonderfully complicated”.47 309. It is providential that these reflections take place in the context of a Holy Year devoted to mercy, because also in the variety of situations affecting families “the Church is commissioned to proclaim the mercy of God, the beating heart of the Gospel, which in its own way must penetrate the mind and heart of every person. The Bride of Christ must pattern her behaviour after the Son of God who goes 46 Ibid., 45. 47 Ibid., 270.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 20 out to everyone without exception”.48 She knows that Jesus himself is the shepherd of the hundred, not just of the ninety-nine. He loves them all. On the basis of this realization, it will become possible for “the balm of mercy to reach everyone, believers and those far away, as a sign that the kingdom of God is already present in our midst”.49 310. We cannot forget that “mercy is not only the working of the Father; it becomes a criterion for knowing who his true children are. In a word, we are called to show mercy because mercy was first shown to us”.50 This is not sheer romanticism or a lukewarm response to God’s love, which always seeks what is best for us, for “mercy is the very foundation of the Church’s life. All of her pastoral activity should be caught up in the tenderness which she shows to believers; nothing in her preaching and her witness to the world can be lacking in mercy”.51 It is true that at times “we act as arbiters of grace rather than its facilitators. But the Church is not a tollhouse; it is the house of the Father, where there is a place for everyone, with all their problems”.52 48 Bull Misericordiae Vultus (11 April 2015), 12: AAS 107 (2015): 407. 49 Ibid., 5: 402. 50 Ibid., 9: 405. 51 Ibid., 10: 406. 52 Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium (24 November 2013), 47: AAS 105 (2013), 1040.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 21 311. The teaching of moral theology should not fail to incorporate these considerations, for although it is quite true that concern must be shown for the integrity of the Church’s moral teaching, special care should always be shown to emphasize and encourage the highest and most central values of the Gospel,53 particularly the primacy of charity as a response to the completely gratuitous offer of God’s love. At times we find it hard to make room for God’s unconditional love in our pastoral activity.54 We put so many conditions on mercy that we empty it of its concrete meaning and real significance. That is the worst way of watering down the Gospel. It is true, for example, that mercy does not exclude justice and truth, but first and foremost we have to say that mercy is the fullness of justice and the most radiant manifestation of God’s truth. For this reason, we should always consider “inadequate any theological conception which in the end puts in doubt the omnipotence of God and, especially, his mercy”.55 53 Cf. ibid., 36-37: AAS 105 (2013), 1035. 54 Perhaps out of a certain scrupulosity, concealed beneath a zeal for fidelity to the truth, some priests demand of penitents a purpose of amendment so lacking in nuance that it causes mercy to be obscured by the pursuit of a supposedly pure justice. For this reason, it is helpful to recall the teaching of Saint John Paul II, who stated that the possibility of a new fall “should not prejudice the authenticity of the resolution” (Letter to Cardinal William W. Baum on the occasion of the Course on the Internal Forum organized by the Apostolic Penitentiary [22 March 1996], 5: Insegnamenti XIX/1 [1996], 589). 55 International Theological Commission, The Hope of Salvation for Infants Who Die Without Being Baptized (19 April 2007), 2.
Amoris Lætitia Chapter VIII 22 312. This offers us a framework and a setting which help us avoid a cold bureaucratic morality in dealing with more sensitive issues. Instead, it sets us in the context of a pastoral discernment filled with merciful love, which is ever ready to understand, forgive, accompany, hope, and above all integrate. That is the mindset which should prevail in the Church and lead us to “open our hearts to those living on the outermost fringes of society”.56 I encourage the faithful who find themselves in complicated situations to speak confidently with their pastors or with other lay people whose lives are committed to the Lord. They may not always encounter in them a confirmation of their own ideas or desires, but they will surely receive some light to help them better understand their situation and discover a path to personal growth. I also encourage the Church’s pastors to listen to them with sensitivity and serenity, with a sincere desire to understand their plight and their point of view, in order to help them live better lives and to recognize their proper place in the Church. 56 Bull Misericordiae Vultus (11 April 2015), 15: AAS 107 (2015), 409.
Document published by the Archdiocese of Malta
and the Diocese of Gozo
www.thechurchinmalta.org
www.gozodiocese.org



============
============
============
 
 

--- BIL-MALTI ---
Amoris Lætitia:  Il-Ferħ tal-Imħabba.   
Eżortazzjoni Appostolika tal-Papa Franġisku dwar l-Imħabba fil-Familja
http://www.laikos.org/AL.htm
 

 
 

============
============
============
 

Linji-gwida mill-Isqfijiet għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu Tmienja tal-Amoris Lætitia


 13 ta' Jannar 2017

 
 
KRITERJI GĦALL-APPLIKAZZJONI TA’ KAPITLU VIII TAL-AMORIS LÆTITIA  - 13 ta' Jannar 2017
--- BIL-MALTI ---
 


KRITERJI GĦALL-APPLIKAZZJONI TA’ KAPITLU VIII TAL-AMORIS LÆTITIA Jannar 2017
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 1 Għażiż ħuna fis-saċerdozju, Bħall-“kewkba” li mexxiet lill-Maġi biex jiltaqgħu ma’ Ġesù, hekk hija l-Eżortazzjoni Appostolika Il-Ferħ tal-Imħabba għall-familji tagħna fil-mixja tagħhom lejn u wara Ġesù. Dan jgħodd ukoll għall-koppji u l-familji li jinsabu f’qagħdiet kumplessi, b’mod partikulari dawk li jinvolvu persuni separati jew divorzjati u li llum qegħdin f’rabta ġdida. Uħud minn dawn il-persuni, għalkemm “tilfu” l-ewwel żwieġ, ma “tilfux” it-tama tagħhom f’Ġesù. Fosthom insibu min jixtieq ħafna jkun f’paċi ma’ Alla u mal-Knisja, tant li qed jistaqsina x’għandu jagħmel biex ikun jista’ jiċċelebra s-sagramenti tal-Qrar u tal-Ewkaristija. Bħall-Maġi li meta sabu lil Ġesù għaddew minn triq oħra (ara Mt 2:12), hekk dawn il-persuni – xi drabi wara vjaġġ twil u mħarbat – jistgħu jiltaqgħu ma’ Kristu li jagħtihom futur anki meta ma jibqax possibbli li jgħaddu mill-istess triq ta’ qabel. Permezz ta’ akkumpanjament u dixxerniment onest, Alla kapaċi jiftaħ toroq ġodda quddiemhom, anki wara li ġarrbu mixja mmarkata mid-“dlam” ta’ għażliet żbaljati jew ta’ esperjenza qarsa ta’ abbandun u tradiment. Fil-laqgħa tagħhom ma’ Kristu u mal-Knisja, dawn il-persuni jsibu “dawl” li jurihom il-ħajja preżenti tagħhom u jgħinhom jaqbdu t-triq tar-ritorn lejn Alla b’ħafna tama u kuraġġ. Għalhekk, fuq l-indikazzjoni tal-Papa Franġisku, aħna l-Isqfijiet ta’ Malta u Għawdex qed noffru dawn il-linji-gwida lis-saċerdoti fid-Djoċesijiet tagħna biex
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 2 isieħbu fit-triq tad-“dixxerniment responsabbli personali u pastorali” lil dawk il-persuni li jixtiequ jaqraw l-istorja ta’ ħajjithom fid-dawl ta’ Ġesù (AL 300). Inħeġġu li dawn il-linji-gwida jinqraw fid-dawl tar-riferenzi li qed nindikaw: 1.Qabelxejn irridu nżommu quddiem għajnejna li l-ministeru pastorali tagħna ma’ persuni li jinsabu f’sitwazzjonijiet familjari kumplessi hu l-ministeru tal-Knisja, li hi Omm u Għalliema. Bħala presbiteri għandna d-dover indawlu l-kuxjenzi billi nxandru lil Kristu u l-ideal sħiħ tal-Evanġelu. Fl-istess waqt, għandna wkoll id-dmir li fuq il-passi ta’ Kristu stess, inħaddnu l-“arti tal-akkumpanjament” u nkunu għajn ta’ fiduċja, tama u integrazzjoni għal kull min qed jistaqsi biex jara lil Ġesù (ara Ġw 12:21), b’mod speċjali dawk l-aktar dgħajfa (ara AL 291, 296, 308; EG 169). Fil-każ ta’ koppji li għandhom l-ulied, din l-integrazzjoni hi meħtieġa mhux biss għalihom, imma wkoll “għall-għożża u l-edukazzjoni Nisranija ta’ wliedhom, li għandhom jitqiesu l-iżjed importanti” (AL 299, ara wkoll AL 245-246). 2.Meta niltaqgħu ma’ jew insiru nafu b’persuni f’qagħdiet hekk imsejħa “irregolari”, nagħmlu ħilitna kollha biex nidħlu fi djalogu magħhom u nsiru nafuhom fi spirtu ta’ mħabba sinċiera. Jekk imbagħad juru xewqa jew jaċċettaw li jidħlu fi proċess serju ta’ dixxerniment personali dwar il-qagħda tagħhom, nakkumpanjawhom mill-qalb u b’ħafna rispett, għożża u attenzjoni. “Importanti nuruhom li huma parti
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 3 mill-Knisja, li ‘mhumiex skomunikati’ u mhumiex trattati bħala tali, għax huma dejjem jibqgħu jagħmlu parti mill-komunjoni ekkleżjali” (AL 243). F’dan il-proċess, xogħolna mhux sempliċement li nagħtu permess għas-sagramenti, li noffru “riċetti sempliċi” (ara AL 298) jew li nieħdu post il-kuxjenza tagħhom, imma li bil-paċenzja kollha ngħinuhom jiffurmawha u jdawluha biex ikunu huma stess li jaslu għal deċiżjoni sinċiera quddiem Alla u jagħmlu l-akbar ġid possibbli (ara AL 37). 3.Imma qabel ma nitkellmu fuq il-kura pastorali ma’ dawk id-dixxipli tal-Mulej li għandhom fuq spallejhom esperjenza ta’ żwieġ li ma rnexxiex u jinsabu f’relazzjoni ġdida, nixtiequ ngħidu kelma dwar dawk li qed jgħixu flimkien jew intrabtu biż-żwieġ ċivili biss. Dawn is-sitwazzjonijiet “għandhom bżonn ta’ attenzjoni pastorali mimlija ħniena u kuraġġ” (AL 293) u għandna “naffrontawhom b’mod kostruttiv u nippruvaw nibdluhom f’opportunitajiet ta’ mixja lejn il-milja taż-żwieġ u l-familja fid-dawl tal-Evanġelju” (AL 294). Fid-dixxerniment pastorali hu importanti li niddistingwu każ minn ieħor. F’ċerti każi din l-għażla “mhix motivata minn preġudizzji jew reżistenzi għall-għaqda sagramentali, imma minn sitwazzjonijiet kulturali jew kontinġenti” (AL 294), u għalhekk anki l-grad ta’ responsabbiltà morali mhuwiex l-istess f’kull każ. “Niftakru li pass ċkejken, qalb il-limitazzjonijiet kbar umani, jista’ jkun mogħġub iżjed quddiem Alla minn ħajja – li minn barra tidher tajba – ta’ min
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 4 jgħaddi ħajtu bla qatt ma jħabbat wiċċu ma’ diffikultajiet importanti” (AL 305, EG 44) 4.Niġu issa għall-ministeru tagħna ma’ persuni separati jew divorzjati li qegħdin f’rabta ġdida. Jekk waqt id-dixxerniment ma’ dawn il-persuni jinbet dubju raġonevoli dwar il-validità jew il-konsumazzjoni taż-żwieġ kanoniku, nissuġġerulhom jagħmlu talba għal dikjarazzjoni ta’ nullità jew għal dissoluzzjoni tar-rabta taż-żwieġ. 5.Waqt dan id-dixxerniment, nagħmlu distinzjoni xierqa bejn sitwazzjoni u oħra, għax hawn ukoll mhux il-każi kollha huma l-istess. “Mod ikollok it-tieni rabta msaħħa biż-żmien, b’ulied ġodda, b’fedeltà mġarrba, b’għotja ġeneruża, b’impenn Nisrani, għarfien tal-irregolarità tal-qagħda li jkunu fiha u diffikultà kbira biex wieħed jerġa’ lura mingħajr ma jħoss fil-kuxjenza li se jerġa’ jaqa’ fi ħtija ġdida. Il-Knisja tagħraf dawk is-sitwazzjonijiet fejn ‘ir-raġel u l-mara, […] għal raġunijiet serji – bħalma hi l-edukazzjoni tat-tfal – ma jistgħux jinfirdu minn xulxin’. Hemm anki l-każi ta’ dawk li għamlu sforzi kbar biex isalvaw l-ewwel żwieġ u ġew inġustament abbandunati, jew anki ta’ ‘dawk li fittxew żwieġ ieħor minħabba l-edukazzjoni ta’ wliedhom, u xi kultant huma konvinti, fil-kuxjenza tagħhom, li ż-żwieġ ta’ qabel, imfarrak għalkollox, qatt ma kien validu’. Mod ieħor, mill-banda l-oħra, ikollok rabta ġdida ġejja minn divorzju riċenti, bil-konsegwenzi kollha ta’ tbatija u konfużjoni li jolqtu lill-ulied u lil familji sħaħ, jew il-qagħda ta’ xi ħadd li
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 5 ripetutement naqas mid-dmirijiet tiegħu lejn il-familja. Għandu jkun ċar li dan mhuwiex l-ideal li l-Evanġelju jipproponi għaż-żwieġ u l-familja” (AL 298). 6.F’dan il-proċess ta’ dixxerniment jiswa li nwasslu lill-persuni jagħmlu “eżami tal-kuxjenza, b’mumenti ta’ riflessjoni u ta’ sogħba”, fejn “jistaqsu lilhom infushom kif ġabu ruħhom ma’ wliedhom meta l-għaqda konjugali tagħhom daħlet fi kriżi; jekk kienx hemm tentattivi ta’ rikonċiljazzjoni; x’inhi l-qagħda tal-parti l-oħra abbandunata; x’konsegwenzi għandha r-relazzjoni ġdida fuq il-bqija tal-familja u l-komunità tal-fidili; x’eżempju qed jagħtu liż-żgħażagħ li qed jitħejjew għaż-żwieġ” (AL 300). Dan jgħodd b’mod partikulari għal dawk il-każijiet fejn il-persuna tagħraf li kienet responsabbli għall-falliment taż-żwieġ. 7.Waqt id-dixxerniment, niżnu r-responsabbiltà morali fis-sitwazzjonijiet partikulari, waqt li nżommu quddiem għajnejna li hemm kundizzjonamenti u ċirkustanzi li jnaqqsu mill-ħtija ta’ min jagħmel l-azzjoni. Fil-fatt, “jista’ jkun hemm fatturi li jillimitaw il-ħila ta’ deċiżjoni” (AL 301) jew saħansitra jnaqqsu mill-ħtija u r-responsabbiltà ta’ xi għemil. Fost dawn insibu l-injoranza, in-nuqqas ta’ attenzjoni, il-vjolenza, il-biża’, l-immaturità affettiva, is-saħħa li għandhom ċerti drawwiet, l-istat ta’ qtigħ il-qalb, ir-rabtiet ta’ mħabba bla rażan, u fatturi oħra psikiċi u soċjali (ara AL 302; KKK 1753, 2352). Proprju minħabba dawn il-kundizzjonamenti u ċ-ċirkustanzi, il-Papa jgħallem li “ma nistgħux ngħidu aktar li dawk kollha li jinsabu
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 6 f’qagħda hekk imsejħa ‘irregolari’ qed jgħixu fl-istat tad-dnub il-mejjet, imċaħħda mill-grazzja li tqaddes” (AL 301). “Hu għalhekk possibbli li, f’qagħda oġġettiva ta’ dnub – li mhix suġġettivament ħatja jew li mhijiex ħatja għalkollox – wieħed jista’ jgħix fil-grazzja ta’ Alla, jista’ jħobb, u jista’ wkoll jikber fil-ħajja tal-grazzja u tal-imħabba, u għal dan il-għan jirċievi l-għajnuna tal-Knisja” (AL 305). Dan id-dixxerniment hu importanti għax, fi kliem il-Papa, f’xi każi din l-għajnuna tista’ tkun ukoll l-għajnuna tas-Sagramenti (ara AL, nota 351). 8.“Meta nemmnu li kollox hu abjad jew iswed, xi drabi nkunu nagħlqu t-triq għall-grazzja li minnha l-bniedem irid jgħaddi biex jikber, u naqtgħu qalb dawk li jridu jagħmlu mixjiet ta’ qdusija li jagħtu glorja lil Alla” (AL 305). Għalhekk neħtieġu iżjed taħriġ prudenti fil-liġi tal-gradwalità (ara AL 295) biex infittxu u nilmħu l-preżenza, il-grazzja u l-ħidma ta’ Alla f’kull sitwazzjoni, u ngħinu l-persuni jersqu iżjed lejn Alla anki meta “mhumiex f’qagħda li jistgħu jifhmu, japprezzaw jew japplikaw b’mod sħiħ l-esiġenzi oġġettivi tal-liġi” (AL 295). 9.Waqt id-dixxerniment, neżaminaw ukoll il-possibbiltà tal-kontinenza konjugali. Għalkemm hi ideal tqil, jaf ikun hemm koppji li bil-qawwa tal-grazzja jipprattikaw din il-virtù, mingħajr ma jqiegħdu f’riskju aspetti oħra tal-ħajja tagħhom flimkien. Min-naħa l-oħra, jeżistu sitwazzjonijiet kumplessi fejn li tnejn jgħixu “ta’ aħwa”
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 7 ikun umanament impossibbli jew joħloq dannu akbar (ara AL, nota 329). 10.Jekk frott ta’ proċess ta’ dixxerniment, magħmul b’ “umiltà, diskrezzjoni, imħabba lejn il-Knisja u t-tagħlim tagħha, fit-tiftixa sinċiera tar-rieda ta’ Alla u fix-xewqa li wieħed jasal għal tweġiba iżjed pefetta għaliha” (AL 300), persuna separata jew divorzjata li tkun f’rabta ġdida tasal – b’kuxjenza iffurmata u mdawla – li tagħraf u temmen li hi f’paċi ma’ Alla, ma tistax tkun imċaħħda milli tersaq għas-sagramenti tal-Qrar u tal-Ewkaristija (ara AL, noti 336 u 351). 11.Waqt id-dixxerniment, ngħarblu ma’ dawn il-persuni kif “sehemhom jista’ jesprimi ruħu f’diversi servizzi ekkleżjali”, partikularment “fil-qasam liturġiku, pastorali, edukattiv u istituzzjonali” (AL 299). Mhux eskluż illi dawn il-persuni jistgħu jikkwalifikaw biex ikunu parrini. Min-naħa l-oħra, “jekk xi ħadd jiddandan bi dnub oġġettiv bħallikieku kien parti mill-ideal Nisrani, jew irid jimponi xi ħaġa differenti minn dak li tgħallem il-Knisja, ma jistax jippretendi li jagħmel katekeżi jew jipprietka”. Lil persuna bħal din, għandna d-dover inxandrulha mill-ġdid “it-tħabbira tal-Evanġelju u l-istedina għall-konverżjoni”. Imma għaliha wkoll jista’ jkun hemm modi kif tieħu sehem fil-ħajja tal-komunità, bħal ngħidu aħna fil-ħidmiet soċjali, fil-laqgħat ta’ talb, jew skont dak li l-inizjattiva personali tagħha, flimkien mad-dixxerniment tagħna, tista’ tissuġġerixxi (ara AL 297).
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 8 12.F’dan l-akkumpanjament, importanti li nisimgħu u nagħtu valur lit-tbatija ta’ dawk il-persuni li b’mod inġust ġarrbu s-separazzjoni, id-divorzju jew l-abbandun, minħabba maltrattamenti mill-parti l-oħra. Dan l-uġigħ isir iżjed trawmatiku f’sitwazzjonijiet ta’ faqar. Il-maħfra tal-inġustizzja li persuna tkun ġarrbet mhix ħaġa ħafifa, imma hi mixja li l-grazzja tagħmel possibbli (ara AL 242). 13.Waqt li niżvolġu dan il-ministeru, għandna r-responsabbiltà li la naqgħu fir-rigoriżmu u lanqas fil-lassiżmu. Għalhekk, dan il-proċess jitlob minna diversi atteġġjamenti, fosthom: spirtu ta’ karità pastorali, onestà, diskrezzjoni, konverżjoni kontinwa, u mħabba lejn il-Knisja u t-tagħlim tagħha (ara AL 267, 300); attenzjoni u smigħ għal dak li Alla għamel “sa mill-bidu” (ara AL 61-66); umiltà biex ninżgħu l-qorq quddiem l-art imqaddsa tal-persuna l-oħra (ara Eż 3:5; EG 169); u xewqa li nfittxu b’sinċerità r-rieda ta’ Alla u li nxerrdu l-fwieħa tal-preżenza ta’ Ġesù u tal-ħarsa personali tiegħu (ara EG 169). 14.Sabiex nevitaw kull okkażjoni ta’ skandlu jew konfużjoni fost il-poplu (ara AL 299), għandna nagħmlu ħilitna kollha biex niffurmaw lilna nfusna u lill-komunitajiet tagħna billi nistudjaw u nippromovu t-tagħlim miġbur fl-Amoris Lætitia. Dan it-tagħlim qed jitlob minna “konverżjoni pastorali” (EG 25). Flimkien mal-Papa, nifhmu li hawn uħud “li jippreferu pastorali iżjed riġida”, imma miegħu sinċerament nemmnu “li Ġesù jrid Knisja attenta għall-ġid li l-Ispirtu jxerred
Kriterji għall-Applikazzjoni ta’ Kapitlu VIII tal-Amoris Lætitia 9 qalb id-dgħufijiet tagħna: Omm li, waqt li tesprimi ċar it-tagħlim oġġettiv tagħha, ‘qatt ma tgħid le għall-ġid li jista’ jsir, anzi lesta li tidħol għar-riskju li titħammeġ bit-tajn tat-triq’” (AL 308). Nitolbu lil Alla, bl-interċessjoni tal-Familja Mqaddsa ta’ Nazaret, biex permezz tas-saċerdoti tagħna, il-Knisja f’Malta u Għawdex tkun messaġġiera li tgħin lill-bniedem tal-lum jinfetaħ għal-leħen ta’ Alla fil-kuxjenza tiegħu, u hekk jara tinfetaħ quddiemu t-triq il-ġdida li toħorġu mid-dlam għad-dawl. Illum, 8 ta’ Jannar 2017, is-Solennità tal-Epifanija tal-Mulej.  Charles J. Scicluna  Mario Grech Arċisqof ta’ Malta Isqof ta’ Għawdex
KAPITLU VIII TAL-EŻORTAZZJONI APPOSTOLIKA TAL-PAPA FRANĠISKU AMORIS LÆTITIA INSIEĦBU, NIDDIXXERNU U NINTEGRAW ID-DGĦUFIJA
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 1 291. Il-Padri Sinodali saħqu li, minkejja li l-Knisja żżomm li kull tifrika tar-rabta taż-żwieġ “hi kontra r-rieda ta’ Alla, taf ukoll bid-dgħufija ta’ ħafna minn uliedha”.1 Imdawla mill-ħarsa ta’ Kristu, “il-Knisja ddur bi mħabba fuq dawk kollha li mhux qed jieħdu sehem sħiħ fil-ħajja tagħha, għax tagħraf li l-grazzja ta’ Alla taħdem f’ħajjithom ukoll u tagħtihom il-kuraġġ biex iwettqu t-tajjeb, biex jieħdu ħsieb ta’ xulxin bi mħabba u jkunu ta’ servizz għall-komunità li fiha jgħixu u jaħdmu”.2 Min-naħa l-oħra, din l-imġiba hi msaħħa aktar fid-dawl ta’ Sena Mqaddsa ddedikata lill-Ħniena. Anki jekk dejjem tipproponi l-perfezzjoni u tistieden għal tweġiba iżjed sħiħa lil Alla, “il-Knisja għandha ssieħeb b’attenzjoni u għożża lil uliedha l-aktar dgħajfa, milquta minn imħabba miġruħa u mifnija, u tagħtihom lura l-fiduċja u t-tama, bħad-dawl tal-fanal ta’ port jew ta’ musbieħ mixgħul f’nofs in-nies biex idawwal lil dawk li tilfu t-triq jew inqabdu f’nofs tempesta qalila”.3 Ma ninsewx li spiss il-missjoni tal-Knisja tixbah lil dik ta’ sptar fuq kamp tal-battalja. 292. Iż-żwieġ Nisrani, mera tar-rabta bejn Kristu u l-Knisja tiegħu, jitwettaq b’mod sħiħ fl-għaqda bejn raġel u mara, li jingħataw lil xulxin fi mħabba esklussiva u fil-fedeltà ħielsa, jibqgħu ta’ xulxin sal-mewt u miftuħa għat-trasmissjoni tal-ħajja, ikkonsagrati mis-sagrament li jsawwab fuqhom il-grazzja biex jinbnew bħala Knisja 1 Relatio Synodi 2014, 24. 2 Ibid., 25. 3 Ibid., 28.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 2 tad-dar u ħmira ta’ ħajja ġdida fis-soċjetà. Xorta oħra ta’ rabtiet huma radikalment kuntrarji għal dan l-ideal, waqt li xi wħud iwettquh biss f’parti minnu jew f’xebh. Il-Padri Sinodali saħqu li l-Knisja qatt ma tonqos li tagħraf il-valur ta’ dawk l-elementi li jikkostitwixxu dawk is-sitwazzjonijiet li għadhom ma jikkorrispondux jew m’għadhomx jikkorrispondu mat-tagħlim tagħha dwar iż-żwieġ.4 Il-gradwalità fil-pastorali 293. Il-Padri qiesu wkoll il-qagħda partikulari ta’ żwieġ ċivili biss jew, mhux mingħajr distinzjoni, anki ta’ sempliċi konvivenza fejn, “meta dik l-għaqda partikulari tilħaq ċerta stabbiltà permezz ta’ rabta pubblika, hi kkaratterizzata minn imħabba qawwija, tagħti responsabbiltà fil-konfront tal-ulied, u toffri l-kapaċità li jiġu ssuperati l-provi, allura nistgħu nħarsu lejha bħala okkażjoni ta’ akkumpanjament fl-iżvilupp lejn is-sagrament taż-żwieġ”.5 Min-naħa l-oħra hu ta’ tħassib il-fatt li ħafna żgħażagħ illum m’għandhomx fiduċja fiż-żwieġ u jibqgħu jikkoabitaw u dejjem jipposponu għal iżjed tard l-impenn taż-żwieġ, waqt li oħrajn iġibu fi tmiemu l-impenn li jkunu ħadu u dlonk jidħlu f’ieħor ġdid. Dawk “li jagħmlu parti mill-Knisja, għandhom bżonn ta’ attenzjoni pastorali mimlija ħniena u kuraġġ”.6 Fil-fatt, hu 4 Ara ibid., 41, 43; Relatio finalis 2015, 70. 5 Relatio Synodi 2014, 27. 6 Ibid., 26.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 3 dmir tar-Ragħajja mhux biss li jippromovu ż-żwieġ Nisrani, imma anki li jagħmlu “d-dixxerniment pastorali tas-sitwazzjonijiet ta’ tant nies li m’għadhomx jgħixu iżjed din ir-realtà”, ħalli “nidħlu fi djalogu pastorali ma’ persuni bħal dawn biex nuruhom liema huma dawk l-aspetti ta’ ħajjithom li jistgħu jwasslu għal ftuħ ikbar għall-Evanġelju taż-żwieġ fil-milja tiegħu”.7 Fid-dixxerniment pastorali jixraq li “jidentifikaw elementi li jistgħu jiffavorixxu l-evanġelizzazzjoni u l-maturità umana u spiritwali”.8 294. “L-għażla taż-żwieġ ċivili jew, f’bosta każi, tas-sempliċi konvivenza, spiss mhix immotivata minn preġudizzji jew reżistenzi għall-għaqda sagramentali, imma minn sitwazzjonijiet kulturali jew kontinġenti”.9 F’dawn is-sitwazzjonijiet għandhom jingħataw il-valur li jixirqilhom dawn is-sinjali ta’ mħabba li b’xi mod jirriflettu l-imħabba ta’ Alla.10 Nafu li “qed jiżdied l-għadd ta’ dawk li wara li jkunu għexu flimkien għal żmien twil, jitolbu li jiċċelebraw iż-żwieġ tagħhom fil-Knisja. L-għażla ta’ sempliċi konvivenza spiss hi frott tal-mentalità ġenerali li teħodha kontra l-istituzzjonijiet u l-impenji defenittivi, imma anki għax wieħed jibqa’ jistenna aktar ċertezza fil-ħajja (xogħol jew paga fissa). Fl-aħħar nett, f’pajjiżi oħra, l-unjonijiet de facto huma ħafna fl-għadd, mhux biss għax qed jitwarrbu l-valuri tal-familja u taż-żwieġ, imma fuq 7 Ibid., 41. 8 Ibid. 9 Relatio finalis 2015, 71. 10 Ara ibid.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 4 kollox għax il-fatt li tiżżewweġ hu meqjus lussu, minħabba fil-kundizzjonijiet soċjali, hekk li l-miżerja materjali twassalhom biex jgħixu f’unjonijiet de facto”.11 Madankollu, “dawn is-sitwazzjonijiet kollha għandna naffrontawhom b’mod kostruttiv, u nippruvaw nibdluhom f’opportunitajiet ta’ mixja lejn il-milja taż-żwieġ u tal-familja fid-dawl tal-Evanġelju. Irridu nilqgħuhom u nakkumpanjawhom b’sabar u delikatezza”.12 Dan hu li għamel Ġesù mas-Samaritana (ara Ġw 4:1-26): kellu kelma għax-xenqa tagħha għal imħabba vera, biex ħelisha minn dak kollu li kien qed idallmilha ħajjitha u wrieha t-triq għall-ferħ sħiħ tal-Evanġelju. 295. F’din il-linja, San Ġwanni Pawlu II jipproponi l-hekk imsejħa “liġi tal-gradwalità”, għax jaf li l-bniedem “jagħraf, iħobb u jagħmel il-ġid morali huwa u jikber”.13 Mhix “gradwalità tal-liġi”, imma gradwalità fit-taħriġ prudenti tal-għemejjel ħielsa f’persuni li mhumiex f’qagħda li jistgħu jifhmu, japprezzaw jew jipprattikaw b’mod sħiħ l-esiġenzi oġġettivi tal-liġi. Għax anki l-liġi hi don ta’ Alla li juri t-triq, don għal kulħadd bla eċċezzjoni li nistgħu ngħixu bil-qawwa tal-grazzja, imqar jekk f’kull bniedem “jiżviluppa ruħu proċess dejjem sejjer ’il quddiem li jfittex idaħħal bil-mod il-mod fil-ħajja personali u soċjali kollha 11 Relatio Synodi 2014, 42. 12 Ibid., 43. 13 Eżortazzjoni appostolika Familiaris consortio (22 ta’ Novembru 1981), 34: AAS 74 (1982), 123.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 5 kemm hi tal-bniedem kulma jagħti Alla u kulma titlob imħabba sħiħa u kbira”.14 Id-dixxerniment tal-qagħdiet hekk imsejħa “irregolari”15 296. Is-Sinodu tkellem dwar bosta qagħdiet ta’ dgħufija jew ta’ imperfezzjoni. Hawn nixtieq infakkar dak li ridt nipproponi b’mod ċar lill-Knisja kollha biex ma jiġrilniex li naqbdu triq b’oħra: “Hemm żewġ xorta ta’ loġika li jterrqu tul l-istorja kollha tal-Knisja: jew twarrab jew tintegra mill-ġdid […]. It-triq tal-Knisja, mill-Konċilju ta’ Ġerusalemm ’il quddiem, dejjem kienet dik ta’ Ġesù: dik tal-ħniena u tal-integrazzjoni […]. It-triq tal-Knisja hi dik li ma tikkundanna qatt lil ħadd għal dejjem; li xxerred il-ħniena ta’ Alla fuq dawk kollha li jfittxuha b’qalb sinċiera […]. Għax il-vera mħabba dejjem tingħata mingħajr il-merti ta’ dak li jkun, bla ebda kundizzjonijiet jew ħlas!”16 Għalhekk, “għandna nevitaw ġudizzji li jinjoraw il-kumplessità tad-diversi sitwazzjonijiet, u jeħtieġ inkunu attenti għall-mod kif il-persuni qed jgħixu u jbatu minħabba fil-qagħda tagħhom”.17 14 Ibid., 9: 90. 15 Ara Katekeżi (24 ta’ Ġunju 2015): L’Osservatore Romano, 25 ta’ Ġunju 2015, 8. 16 Omelija fl-Ewkaristija ċċelebrata mal-kardinali ġodda (15 ta’ Frar 2015): AAS 107 (2015), 257. 17 Relatio finalis 2015, 51.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 6 297. Għandna nintegraw lil kulħadd, u lil kulħadd irridu ngħinu jsib il-mod tiegħu kif jieħu sehem fil-komunità ekkleżjali, biex iħossu hu wkoll oġġett ta’ ħniena li hu jirċievi “bla merti, bla kundizzjonijiet u bla ħlas”. Ħadd mhu kkundannat għal dejjem, għax din mhix il-loġika tal-Evanġelju! M’iniex ngħid biss għad-divorzjati li qegħdin f’rabta ġdida, imma għal kulħadd, f’kull qagħda li fiha jinsab. Bla dubju, jekk xi ħadd jiddandan bi dnub oġġettiv bħallikieku kien parti mill-ideal Nisrani, jew irid jimponi xi ħaġa differenti minn dak li tgħallem il-Knisja, ma jistax jippretendi li jagħmel katekeżi jew jipprietka, u f’dan is-sens hemm xi ħaġa li taqtgħu mill-komunità (ara Mt 18:17). Għandu bżonn jisma’ mill-ġdid it-tħabbira tal-Evanġelju u l-istedina għall-konverżjoni. Imma mqar għal din il-persuna jista’ jkun hemm xi mod kif tieħu sehem fil-ħajja tal-komunità: fil-ħidmiet soċjali, fil-laqgħat ta’ talb, jew skont dak li l-inizjattiva personali tiegħu, flimkien mad-dixxerniment tar-Ragħaj, tista’ tissuġġerilu. Dwar kif għandna nġibu ruħna mad-diversi qagħdiet imsejħa “irregolari”, il-Padri Sinodali laħqu qbil ġenerali, li jiena nikkonferma: “Biex ikollha din l-attitudni pastorali mal-persuni li daħlu fi żwieġ ċivili, li huma divorzjati u miżżewġa mill-ġdid, jew li sempliċement qed jikkoabitaw, il-Knisja għandha turihom il-pedagoġija divina tal-grazzja li taħdem f’ħajjithom u tgħinhom jilħqu l-milja tal-pjan ta’ Alla għalihom”,18 ħaġa li hi dejjem possibbli bil-qawwa tal-Ispirtu s-Santu. 18 Relatio Synodi 2014, 25.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 7 298. Ngħidu aħna, id-divorzjati li qegħdin f’rabta ġdida jistgħu jsibu ruħhom f’qagħdiet differenti ħafna minn xulxin, li ma jistgħux jiġu kkatalogati jew magħluqa f’affermazzjonijiet riġidi żżejjed bla ma nagħtu lok għal dixxerniment personali u pastorali xieraq. Mod ikollok it-tieni rabta msaħħa biż-żmien, b’ulied ġodda, b’fedeltà mġarrba, b’għotja ġeneruża, b’impenn Nisrani, għarfien tal-irregolarità tal-qagħda li jkunu fiha u diffikultà kbira biex wieħed jerġa’ lura mingħajr ma jħoss fil-kuxjenza li se jerġa’ jaqa’ fi ħtija ġdida. Il-Knisja tagħraf dawk is-sitwazzjonijiet fejn “ir-raġel u l-mara, […] għal raġunijiet serji – bħalma hi, l-edukazzjoni tat-tfal – ma jistgħux jinfirdu minn xulxin”.19 Hemm anki l-każi ta’ dawk li għamlu sforzi kbar biex isalvaw l-ewwel żwieġ u ġew inġustament abbandunati, jew anki ta’ “dawk li fittxew żwieġ ieħor minħabba l-edukazzjoni ta’ wliedhom, u xi kultant huma konvinti, fil-kuxjenza tagħhom, li ż-żwieġ ta’ qabel, imfarrak għalkollox, qatt ma kien validu”.20 Mod ieħor, mill-banda l-oħra, ikollok rabta ġdida ġejja minn divorzju riċenti, bil-konsegwenzi kollha ta’ tbatija u konfużjoni li jolqtu lill-ulied u lil familji sħaħ, jew il-qagħda 19 ĠWANNI PAWLU II, Eżortazzjoni appostolika Familiaris consortio (22 ta’ Novembru 1981), 84: AAS 74 (1982), 186. F’dawn is-sitwazzjonijiet, ħafna jagħrfu u jaċċettaw il-possibbiltà offruta lilhom mill-Knisja li jgħixu flimkien “qishom aħwa”, imma jintebħu li, jekk jibqgħu nieqsa ċerti espressjonijiet ta’ intimità, “il-fedeltà ħafna drabi tista’ tiġi fil-periklu, u l-ġid tal-ulied isofri” (KONĊILJU EKUMENIKU VATIKAN II, Kostituzzjoni pastorali Gaudium et spes, 51). 20 ĠWANNI PAWLU II, Eżortazzjoni appostolika Familiaris consortio (22 ta’ Novembru 1981), 84: AAS 74 (1982), 186.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 8 ta’ xi ħadd li ripetutement naqas mid-dmirijiet tiegħu lejn il-familja. Għandu jkun ċar li dan mhuwiex l-ideal li l-Evanġelju jipproponi għaż-żwieġ u l-familja. Il-Padri Sinodali saħqu li d-dixxerniment tar-Ragħajja għandu dejjem “jagħmel distinzjoni xierqa”,21 b’ħarsa li tgħarbel tajjeb kull sitwazzjoni.22 Nafu li ma jeżistux “riċetti sempliċi”.23 299. Nilqa’ r-riflessjonijiet ta’ bosta Padri Sinodali, li riedu jisħqu li “l-imgħammdin li huma divorzjati u reġgħu żżewġu ċivilment għandhom jiġu integrati iżjed fil-komunitajiet Insara bid-diversi modi possibbli, waqt li nevitaw kull okkażjoni ta’ skandlu. Il-loġika tal-integrazzjoni hi l-muftieħ tat-tisħib pastorali tagħhom, biex mhux biss jagħrfu li huma jagħmlu parti mill-Ġisem ta’ Kristu li hu l-Knisja, imma li jistgħu wkoll jagħmlu esperjenza hienja u għammiela fi ħdanha. Huma mgħammdin, huma aħwa, l-Ispirtu s-Santu jsawwab fuqhom id-doni u kariżmi għall-ġid ta’ kulħadd. Sehemhom jista’ jesprimi ruħu f’diversi servizzi ekkleżjali: għalhekk għandna niddixxernu liema mid-diversi xejriet ta’ esklużjoni li qed jiġu pprattikati bħalissa fil-qasam liturġiku, pastorali, edukattiv u istituzzjonali jistgħu jitwarrbu. Huma mhux biss m’għandhomx iħossuhom skomunikati, imma jistgħu jgħixu u jimmaturaw bħala membri ħajjin tal-Knisja, u jħossuha bħala omm li dejjem 21 Relatio Synodi 2014, 26. 22 Ara ibid., 45. 23 BENEDITTU XVI, Diskors fis-VII Laqgħa Dinjija tal-Familji, Milan (2 ta’ Ġunju 2012), tweġiba 5: Insegnamenti VIII, 1 (2012), 691.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 9 tilqagħhom, tieħu ħsieb tagħhom bi mħabba, u tagħmlilhom il-qalb fil-mixja tal-ħajja u tal-Evanġelju. Din l-integrazzjoni hi meħtieġa wkoll għall-għożża u l-edukazzjoni Nisranija ta’ wliedhom, li għandhom jitqiesu l-iżjed importanti”.24 300. Jekk inqisu l-firxa bla qies ta’ sitwazzjonijiet konkreti, bħal dawk li semmejna hawn, nifhmu li ma nistgħux nistennew mis-Sinodu u minn din l-Eżortazzjoni xi norma ġenerali ġdida ta’ bixra kanonika, li tapplika għall-każi kollha. Nistgħu biss noffru tħeġġiġa ġdida għal dixxerniment responsabbli personali u pastorali tal-każi partikulari, li għandu jagħraf li, billi “l-grad ta’ responsabbiltà mhuwiex l-istess f’kull każ”,25 il-konsegwenzi u l-effetti ta’ norma mhux bilfors għandhom ikunu dejjem l-istess.26 Hu fid-dmir tal-presbiteri li “jsieħbu lill-persuni interessati fit-triq tad-dixxerniment skont it-tagħlim tal-Knisja u l-orjentamenti li jagħti l-Isqof. F’dan il-proċess jiswa li jagħmlu eżami tal-kuxjenza, b’mumenti ta’ riflessjoni u ta’ sogħba. Id-divorzjati li reġgħu żżewġu għandhom jistaqsu lilhom infushom kif ġabu ruħhom ma’ wliedhom meta 24 Relatio finalis 2015, 84. 25 Ibid., 51. 26 Lanqas f’dik li hi dixxiplina sagramentali, jekk bid-dixxerniment wieħed jagħraf li f’sitwazzjoni partikulari m’hemmx ħtija gravi. Hawn jiġi applikat dak li ntqal f’dokument ieħor: ara Eżortazzjoni appostolika Evangelii gaudium (24 ta’ Novembru 2013), 44, 47: AAS 105 (2013), 1038-1040.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 10 l-għaqda konjugali tagħhom daħlet fi kriżi; jekk kienx hemm tentattivi ta’ rikonċiljazzjoni; x’inhi l-qagħda tal-parti l-oħra abbandunata; x’konsegwenzi għandha r-relazzjoni ġdida fuq il-bqija tal-familja u l-komunità tal-fidili; x’eżempju qed jagħtu liż-żgħażagħ li qed jitħejjew għaż-żwieġ. Riflessjoni sinċiera tista’ ssaħħaħ il-fiduċja fil-ħniena ta’ Alla li qatt ma tiġi miċħuda lil ħadd”.27 Qed nitkellmu dwar mixja ta’ tisħib u ta’ dixxerniment li “torjenta lil dawn il-fidili biex jagħrfu fil-kuxjenza tagħhom u quddiem Alla l-qagħda li jinsabu fiha. Il-kollokju mas-saċerdot, fil-foro interno, jgħin biex jissawwar ġudizzju korrett fuq dak li qed ixekkel il-possibbiltà ta’ sehem iżjed sħiħ fil-ħajja tal-Knisja u fuq il-passi li jistgħu jqarrbu lejha u jgħinuha tikber. Billi fl-istess liġi m’hemmx gradwalità (ara Familiaris consortio, 34), dan id-dixxerniment ma jista’ qatt iwarrab l-esiġenzi tal-verità u tal-imħabba tal-Evanġelju proposti mill-Knisja. Biex dan iseħħ, iridu jiġu żgurati l-kundizzjonijiet meħtieġa ta’ umiltà, diskrezzjoni, imħabba lejn il-Knisja u t-tagħlim tagħha, fit-tiftixa sinċiera tar-rieda ta’ Alla u fix-xewqa li wieħed jasal għal tweġiba iżjed perfetta għaliha”.28 Dawn l-atteġġjamenti huma fundamentali biex naħarbu r-riskju serju li jintbagħtu l-messaġġi żbaljati, bħall-idea li xi saċerdot jista’ malajr jikkonċedi “eċċezzjonijiet”, jew li jeżistu nies li jistgħu jiksbu privileġġi sagramentali bi ħlas għal xi favur li jkunu għamlu. Meta ssib persuna responsabbli u diskreta, li ma tippretendix li tqiegħed 27 Relatio finalis 2015, 85. 28 Ibid., 86.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 11 ix-xewqat tagħha ’l fuq mill-ġid komuni tal-Knisja, flimkien ma’ Ragħaj li jaf jagħraf is-serjetà tal-kwistjoni li jkun qed jittratta, jiġi evitat ir-riskju li xi dixxerniment partikulari jagħti lil xi ħadd x’jaħseb li l-Knisja qed timxi b’morali doppja. Iċ-ċirkustanzi attenwanti f’dixxerniment pastorali 301. Biex nifhmu aħjar għaliex hemm bżonn dixxerniment speċjali f’ċerti sitwazzjonijiet imsejħa “irregolari”, hemm kwistjoni li dejjem irridu nagħtu kasha, waqt li nżommu f’moħħna li qatt ma nistgħu nfaqqru dak li qed jitlob minna l-Evanġelju. Il-Knisja twettaq riflessjoni soda fuq il-kundizzjonamenti u ċ-ċirkustanzi attenwanti li jnaqqsu mill-gravità tal-azzjoni. Għalhekk ma nistgħux ngħidu li dawk kollha li jinsabu f’qagħda hekk imsejħa “irregolari” qed jgħixu fl-istat tad-dnub il-mejjet, imċaħħda mill-grazzja li tqaddes. Il-limiti ma jiddipendux biss mill-injoranza tan-norma. Suġġett ta’ azzjoni, anki jekk ikun jaf sewwa n-norma, jista’ jsibha bi tqilha qatigħ biex jifhem “il-valuri stess ta’ din ir-regola morali”29 jew jista’ jsib ruħu f’qagħdiet konkreti li ma jħalluhx jaġixxi b’mod differenti u li jieħu deċiżjonijiet oħrajn mingħajr ma jaqa’ fi ħtija ġdida. Kif esprimew ruħhom tajjeb il-Padri Sinodali, “jista’ jkun hemm fatturi li jillimitaw il-ħila ta’ deċiżjoni”.30 San Tumas ta’ Aquino diġà kien għaraf li xi ħadd jista’ jkollu 29 ĠWANNI PAWLU II, Eżortazzjoni appostolika Familiaris consortio (22 ta’ Novembru 1981), 33: AAS 74 (1982), 121. 30 Relatio finalis 2015, 51.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 12 l-grazzja u l-imħabba, imma mingħajr ma jista’ jħaddem tajjeb waħda mill-virtujiet,31 hekk li mqar jekk għandu l-virtujiet morali kollha msawbin fuqu, ma jirnexxilux juri ċar l-eżistenza ta’ xi waħda minnhom, għax isibha bi tqilha biex jaġixxi esternament b’dik il-virtù: “Jingħad li xi qaddisin m’għandhomx ċerti virtujiet, ladarba jsibuha bi tqila jwettqu l-għemejjel tagħhom, […] imqar jekk għandhom id-drawwa tal-virtujiet kollha”.32 302. Dwar dawn il-kundizzjonamenti l-Katekiżmu tal-Knisja Kattolika jesprimi ruħu b’mod ċar ħafna: “Il-ħtija u r-responsabbiltà ta’ xi għemil jistgħu jonqsu jew jispiċċaw għalkollox minħabba l-injoranza, in-nuqqas ta’ attenzjoni, il-vjolenza, il-biża’, id-drawwiet, ir-rabtiet ta’ mħabba bla rażan, u fatturi oħra psikiċi jew soċjali”.33 F’paragrafu ieħor jirriferi mill-ġdid għaċ-ċirkustanzi li jnaqqsu mir-responsabbiltà morali, u jsemmi fit-tul l-immaturità affettiva, is-saħħa li għandhom id-drawwiet li ndraw, l-istat ta’ qtigħ il-qalb, u fatturi oħra psikiċi u soċjali.34 Għal din ir-raġuni, ġudizzju negattiv fuq 31 Ara Summa Theologiæ I-II, q. 65, a. 3, ad 2; De malo, q. 2, a. 2. 32 Ibid., ad 3. 33 N. 1735. 34 Ara ibid., 2352; KONGREGAZZJONI GĦAD-DUTTRINA TAL-FIDI, Dikjarazzjoni Iura et bona fuq l-ewtanasja (5 ta’ Mejju 1980), II: AAS 72 (1980), 546. Ġwanni Pawlu II jikkritika l-kategorija tal-“għażla fundamentali”, u jagħraf li “jista’ jkun hemm kundizzjonijiet, tant ikkumplikati u tant imħawdin mill-aspett psikoloġiku, li jistgħu jinfluwenzaw il-ħtija suġġettiva tal-midneb” (Eżortazzjoni appostolika Reconciliatio et pænitentia [2 ta’ Diċembru 1984], 17: AAS 77 [1985], 223).
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 13 sitwazzjoni oġġettiva ma jimplikax ġudizzju fuq ir-responsabbiltà jew il-ħtija tal-persuna involuta.35 Fid-dawl ta’ dawn il-konvinzjonijiet, nemmen li hu f’postu ħafna dak li riedu jagħfsu fuqu ħafna Padri Sinodali: “F’xi ċirkustanzi partikulari l-persuni jsibuha bi tqila ħafna li jaġixxu mod ieħor. […] Id-dixxerniment pastorali, waqt li jżomm f’moħħu wkoll il-kuxjenza ffurmata tajjeb tal-persuni, għandu jagħti kas ta’ dawn is-sitwazzjonijiet. Lanqas il-konsegwenzi tal-atti magħmula mhuma neċessarjament l-istess fil-każi kollha”.36 303. Waqt li nagħrfu l-piż li għandhom il-kundizzjonamenti konkreti, nistgħu nżidu li l-kuxjenza tal-persuni għandu jkollha sehem akbar fil-prassi tal-Knisja f’ċerti sitwazzjonijiet li ma jwettqux oġġettivament dak li aħna nifhmu bi żwieġ. Naturalment għandna dejjem inħeġġu l-formazzjoni ta’ kuxjenza mdawla, iffurmata u msieħba mid-dixxerniment responsabbli u serju tar-Ragħaj, u nipproponu fiduċja dejjem akbar fil-grazzja. Imma din il-kuxjenza tista’ tagħraf mhux biss li hemm qagħda li mhix twieġeb oġġettivament għall-proposta ġenerali tal-Evanġelju; tista’ tagħraf ukoll b’sinċerità u onestà dik li għall-mument ta’ issa hi t-tweġiba ġeneruża li tista’ toffri lil Alla, u tiskopri b’xi ċertezza morali li dik hi l-għotja li Alla nnifsu qed jitlob minnha qalb il-kumplessità konkreta tal-limiti, anki jekk dan għadu mhux l-ideal oġġettiv sħiħ. 35 Ara KUNSILL PONTIFIĊJU GĦAT-TESTI LEĠISLATTIVI, Dikjarazzjoni fuq l-aċċess għat-Tqarbin tad-divorzjati li reġgħu żżewġu (24 ta’ Ġunju 2000), 2. 36 Relatio finalis 2015, 85.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 14 Hu x’inhu, infakkru li dan id-dixxerniment hu dinamiku u għandu jibqa’ dejjem miftuħ għal passi ġodda li fihom wieħed jikber u jieħu deċiżjonijiet ġodda li bihom jista’ jilħaq l-ideal b’mod iżjed sħiħ. In-normi u d-dixxerniment 304. Inkunu qed infaqqru wisq id-diskors tagħna meta noqogħdu nqisu biss jekk l-aġir ta’ persuna hux iwieġeb jew le għal liġi jew għal norma ġenerali, għax dan mhux biżżejjed biex nistgħu niddixxernu u niżguraw fedeltà sħiħa lejn Alla fil-ħajja konkreta tal-bniedem. Nitlob bil-ħrara li niftakru dejjem f’dak li jgħallimna San Tumas ta’ Aquino u li nitgħallmu nagħmluh tagħna fid-dixxerniment pastorali: “Minkejja li fil-ħwejjeġ ġenerali hemm ċerta neċessità, aktar ma wieħed jinżel fil-ħwejjeġ partikulari, aktar isib indeterminazzjoni. […] Fil-qasam prattiku mhijiex l-istess għal kulħadd il-verità jew in-norma prattika f’relazzjoni mal-partikulari, imma biss f’relazzjoni ma’ dak li hu ġenerali; u anki fost dawk li jaċċettaw l-istess norma prattika għall-każijiet partikulari, din mhijiex magħrufa l-istess minn kulħadd. […] U aktar ma tinżel fil-partikular, aktar tikber l-indeterminazzjoni”.37 Hu minnu li n-normi ġenerali jippreżentaw ġid li qatt m’għandna nwarrbu jew nittraskuraw, imma fil-formulazzjoni tiegħu ma jistgħux iħaddnu għalkollox il-qagħdiet partikulari kollha. Fl-istess ħin irridu ngħidu li, proprju għal din ir-raġuni, dak li 37 Summa Theologiæ I-II, q. 94, art. 4.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 15 jagħmel parti minn dixxerniment prattiku quddiem sitwazzjoni partikulari ma jistax jitgħolla għal-livell ta’ norma. Dan mhux biss jagħti lok għal każistika insapportabbli, imma jispiċċa jqiegħed f’riskju l-valuri li għandna nħarsu b’tant reqqa.38 305. Għalhekk, Ragħaj ma jistax iħossu sodisfatt biss li qed iħaddem il-liġijiet morali ma’ dawk li qegħdin jgħixu f’sitwazzjonijiet “irregolari”, bħallikieku kienu ġebliet biex jitwaddbu kontra l-ħajjiet tan-nies. Dawn huma qlub magħluqa, li spiss jistaħbew saħansitra wara t-tagħlim tal-Knisja “biex ipoġġu fuq il-katedra ta’ Mosè u jagħmlu ħaqq, xi drabi b’superjorità u superfiċjalità, mill-każijiet diffiċli u l-familji midruba”.39 F’din l-istess linja tkellmet il-Kummissjoni Teoloġika Internazzjonali: “Għalhekk il-liġi naturali ma tistax tiġi ppreżentata bħala ġabra diġà lesta ta’ regoli imposti a priori fuq is-suġġett morali, imma hi għajn li b’mod oġġettiv tnebbaħ il-proċess, qabelxejn personali, tat-teħid ta’ deċiżjoni”.40 Minħabba fil-kundizzjonamenti jew aspetti li jnaqqsu l-gravità, hu 38 Meta jirriferi għall-għarfien ġenerali tan-norma u għall-għarfien partikulari tad-dixxerniment prattiku, San Tumas jasal biex jgħid li “jekk m’hemmx ħlief waħda minn dawn iż-żewġ xejriet ta’ għarfien, nippreferu li dan ikun l-għarfien tar-realtà partikulari, li aktar toqrob lejn l-għemil” (Sententia libri Ethicorum, VI, 6 [ed. Leonina, t. XLVII, 354]). 39 Diskors fl-għeluq tal-XIV-il Assemblea Ġenerali Ordinarja tas-Sinodu tal-Isqfijiet (24 ta’ Ottubru 2015): L’Osservatore Romano, 26-27 ta’ Ottubru 2015, 13. 40 Infittxu etika universali: ħarsa ġdida lejn il-liġi naturali (2009), 59.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 16 għalhekk possibbli li, f’qagħda oġġettiva ta’ dnub – li mhix suġġettivament ħatja jew li mhijiex ħatja għalkollox – wieħed jista’ jgħix fil-grazzja ta’ Alla, jista’ jħobb, u jista’ wkoll jikber fil-ħajja tal-grazzja u tal-imħabba, u għal dan il-għan jirċievi l-għajnuna tal-Knisja.41 Id-dixxerniment għandu jgħinna nsibu t-toroq miftuħa quddiemna biex nagħtu tweġiba lil Alla u nikbru permezz tal-limiti tagħna. Meta nemmnu li kollox hu abjad jew iswed, xi drabi nkunu nagħlqu t-triq għall-grazzja li minnha l-bniedem irid jgħaddi biex jikber, u naqtgħu qalb dawk li jridu jagħmlu mixjiet ta’ qdusija li jagħtu glorja lil Alla. Niftakru li “pass ċkejken, qalb il-limitazzjonijiet kbar umani, jista’ jkun mogħġub iżjed quddiem Alla minn ħajja – li minn barra tidher tajba – ta’ min jgħaddi ħajtu bla qatt iħabbat wiċċu ma’ diffikultajiet importanti”.42 Il-pastorali konkreta tal-ministri u tal-komunitajiet ma tistax tibqa’ lura milli tagħmel tagħha din ir-realtà. 306. F’kull ċirkustanza, quddiem dawk li qed isibuha bi tqila biex jgħixu b’mod sħiħ il-liġi divina, għandha tidwi l-istedina biex interrqu l-via caritatis. L-imħabba tal-aħwa 41 F’ċerti każi, tista’ tkun ukoll l-għajnuna tas-Sagramenti. Għalhekk, “lis-saċerdoti nfakkarhom li l-konfessjonarju m’għandux ikun kamra tat-tortura imma l-imkien tal-ħniena tal-Mulej” (Eżortazzjoni appostolika Evangelii gaudium [24 ta’ Novembru 2013], 44: AAS 105 [2013], 1038). Bl-istess mod infakkar li l-Ewkaristija “mhix xi premju għall-perfetti biss, imma hi duwa b’saħħitha u ikel għad-dgħajfin” (ibid., 47: 1039). 42 Eżortazzjoni appostolika Evangelii gaudium (24 ta’ Novembru 2013), 44: AAS 105 (2013), 1038-1039.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 17 hi l-ewwel liġi tal-Insara (ara Ġw 15:12; Gal 5:14). Ma ninsewx il-wegħda tal-Iskrittura: “Fuq kollox, ħa jkollkom imħabba sħiħa lejn xulxin, għax l-imħabba tgħatti kotra ta’ dnubiet” (1 Pt 4:8); “infatam minn ħtijietek b’għemejjel tajba, u minn ħżunitek, billi tħenn għall-imsejknin” (Dan 4:24); “l-ilma jitfi nar iħeġġeġ, u l-karità tagħmel tajjeb għad-dnubiet” (Sir 3:30). U anki dak li jgħallem Santu Wistin: “Kif, mela, fil-periklu ta’ ħruq, inħaffu nfittxu l-ilma biex nitfuh, […] bl-istess mod, jekk minn qalb il-qatet tat-tiben tagħna tfiġġ il-fjamma tad-dnub u din il-ħaġa ddejjaqna, malli tiġi quddiemna okkażjoni ta’ opra ta’ ħniena, nifirħu biha bħallikieku kienet għajn ta’ ilma li qed joffrulna biex nistgħu nitfu n-nirien”.43 Il-loġika tal-ħniena pastorali 307. Biex nevitaw kull interpretazzjoni żbaljata, infakkar li bl-ebda mod il-Knisja m’għandha żżomm lura milli tipproponi l-ideal sħiħ taż-żwieġ, il-pjan ta’ Alla fil-kobor sħiħ tiegħu: “Iż-żgħażagħ mgħammdin għandna nqawwulhom qalbhom biex ma jibżgħux quddiem l-għana li s-sagrament taż-żwieġ kapaċi jagħti lill-pjanijiet tagħhom, imsaħħin mill-qawwa li jirċievu mill-grazzja ta’ Kristu u mill-possibbiltà li jieħdu sehem sħiħ fil-ħajja tal-Knisja”.44 Meta l-affarijiet isiru b’nofs qalb, kif ukoll kull 43 De catechizandis rudibus, I, 14, 22: PL 40, 327; ara Eżortazzjoni appostolika Evangelii gaudium (24 ta’ Novembru 2013), 193: AAS 105 (2013), 1101. 44 Relatio Synodi 2014, 26.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 18 għamla jew oħra ta’ relattiviżmu, jew li noqogħdu nqisu meta ħa nipproponuhom, dan ikun nuqqas ta’ fedeltà lejn l-Evanġelju u anki nuqqas ta’ mħabba min-naħa tal-Knisja lejn l-istess żgħażagħ. Li nifhmu s-sitwazzjonijiet eċċezzjonali qatt ma jfisser li naħbu d-dawl tal-ideal iżjed sħiħ u lanqas li nipproponu xi ħaġa inqas minn dak li Ġesù qed joffri lill-bniedem. Illum, iżjed importanti minn pastorali ta’ fallimenti, hu l-isforz pastorali li rridu nagħmlu biex insaħħu ż-żwiġijiet u hekk inħarsuhom minn kull tifrik. 308. Minkejja dan, minn dan l-għarfien tagħna tal-piż taċ-ċirkustanzi attenwanti – psikoloġiċi, storiċi u anki bijoloġiċi – joħroġ li, “bla nnaqqsu xejn mill-valur tal-ideal tal-Evanġelju, jeħtieġ nakkumpanjaw bil-ħniena u s-sabar il-passi ta’ maturità tal-persuni li huma jibnu jum wara l-ieħor”, u nħallu spazju għall-“ħniena tal-Mulej li jridna nagħmlu l-akbar ġid possibbli”.45 Nifhimhom lil dawk li jippreferu pastorali iżjed riġida li ma tħallix lok għal xi għamla jew oħra ta’ konfużjoni. Imma sinċerament nemmen li Ġesù jrid Knisja attenta għall-ġid li l-Ispirtu jxerred qalb id-dgħufijiet tagħna: Omm li, waqt li tesprimi ċar it-tagħlim oġġettiv tagħha, “qatt ma tgħid le għall-ġid li jista’ jsir, anzi lesta li tidħol għar-riskju li titħammeġ bit-tajn tat-triq”.46 Ir-Ragħajja li jipproponu lill-fidili l-ideal sħiħ tal-Evanġelju u d-duttrina tal-Knisja, għandhom jgħinuhom ukoll jagħmlu tagħhom il-loġika tal-ħniena 45 Eżortazzjoni appostolika Evangelii gaudium (24 ta’ Novembru 2013), 44: AAS 105 (2013), 1038. 46 Ibid., 45: AAS 105 (2013), 1039.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 19 mal-persuni dgħajfa u jevitaw persekuzzjonijiet jew ġudizzji ħorox wisq jew bla sabar. L-Evanġelju stess jitlobna ma niġġudikawx u ma nikkundannawx (ara Mt 7:1; Lq 6:37). Ġesù “jistenna minna li ma noqogħdux infittxu dawk in-niċeċ ta’ kenn personali jew komunitarju li jżommuna mbegħdin minn fejn tħabbat il-qalb tat-tbatija umana, biex nistgħu naċċettaw tabilħaqq li nidħlu f’kuntatt mal-eżistenza konkreta tal-oħrajn u nagħrfu kemm hi kbira l-qawwa tal-ħlewwa. Meta nagħmlu dan, il-ħajja dejjem tikkumplika ruħha b’mod sabiħ”.47 309. Hu tassew providenzjali li dawn ir-riflessjonijiet qed nagħmluhom fid-dawl ta’ din is-Sena Mqaddsa ddedikata lill-Ħniena, għax anki quddiem l-iktar qagħdiet differenti li fihom tinsab il-familja, “il-Knisja għandha l-missjoni li xxandar il-ħniena ta’ Alla, il-qalb tħabbat tal-Evanġelju, li permezz tagħha trid tilħaq il-qalb u l-moħħ ta’ kull bniedem. L-Għarusa ta’ Kristu tagħmel tagħha l-imġiba tal-Iben ta’ Alla li joħroġ jiltaqa’ ma’ kulħadd mingħajr ma jħalli lil ħadd barra”.48 Hi taf tajjeb li Ġesù nnifsu jidher bħala Ragħaj ta’ mitt nagħġa, u mhux ta’ disgħa u disgħin. Kollha jħobbhom. B’dan l-għarfien, hu possibbli li “jilħaq lil kulħadd, kemm dawk li jemmnu u kemm dawk li huma mbiegħda, il-balzmu tal-ħniena bħala sinjal tas-Saltna ta’ Alla li diġà tinsab fostna”.49 47 Ibid., 270: AAS 105 (2013), 1128. 48 Bolla Misericordiæ Vultus (11 ta’ April 2015), 12: AAS 107 (2015), 407. 49 Ibid., 5: 402.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 20 310. Ma rridux ninsew li “l-ħniena mhix biss l-għemil tal-Missier, imma ssir il-kriterju biex nistgħu nifhmu min huma l-ulied veri tiegħu. F’kelma waħda, aħna msejħin ngħixu bil-ħniena, għax qabelxejn kien magħna stess li ntweriet il-ħniena”.50 Mhix xi proposta romantika jew tweġiba dgħajfa quddiem l-imħabba ta’ Alla, li dejjem trid terfa’ lill-bniedem, għax “il-fus li jwieżen il-ħajja tal-Knisja hu l-ħniena. L-azzjoni pastorali kollha tagħha għandha tkun imgeżwra fil-ħniena li biha hi ddur fuq dawk li jemmnu; xejn mit-tħabbira u mix-xhieda tagħha quddiem id-dinja m’għandu jkun nieqes mill-ħniena”.51 Minnu li xi drabi “nġibu ruħna qisna konna aħna li qed nikkontrollaw il-grazzja u mhux bħala dawk li jiffaċilitawha. Imma l-Knisja mhix dwana, hi d-dar tal-Missier fejn hemm post għal kulħadd, kull wieħed bil-ħajja iebsa tiegħu”.52 311. It-tagħlim tat-teoloġija morali m’għandux jibqa’ lura milli jagħmel tiegħu dawn ir-riflessjonijiet, għax imqar jekk hu minnu li jeħtieġ ngħożżu l-integrità tat-tagħlim morali tal-Knisja, dejjem irridu nfittxu b’mod speċjali li nuru u ninkuraġġixxu l-valuri l-iżjed għolja u ċentrali tal-Evanġelju,53 partikularment il-primat tal-karità bħala tweġiba għall-inizjattiva ħielsa tal-imħabba ta’ Alla. Xi drabi jiswielna ħafna li fil-pastorali tagħna nagħtu wisa’ 50 Ibid., 9: 405. 51 Ibid., 10: 406. 52 Eżortazzjoni appostolika Evangelii gaudium (24 ta’ Novembru 2013), 47: AAS 105 (2013), 1040. 53 Ara ibid., 36-37: AAS 105 (2013), 1035.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 21 lill-imħabba bla kundizzjonijiet ta’ Alla.54 Tant nagħmlu kundizzjonamenti għall-ħniena, li nbattluha mit-tifsira konkreta tagħha u mis-sens veru tagħha, u dan hu l-agħar mod kif inkunu nġibu fix-xejn l-Evanġelju. Ngħidu aħna, hu minnu li l-ħniena ma tħallix barra l-ġustizzja u l-verità, imma qabelxejn irridu ngħidu li l-ħniena hi l-milja tal-ġustizzja u l-wirja l-iżjed imdawla tal-verità ta’ Alla. Għalhekk, dejjem għandna nqisu bħala “mhux f’loku kull kunċett teoloġiku li fl-aħħar mill-aħħar iqiegħed fid-dubju il-qawwa ta’ Alla li jista’ kollox, u b’mod partikulari l-ħniena tiegħu”.55 312. Dan jagħtina f’idejna kwadru u klima li jżommuna milli niżviluppaw morali kiesħa tal-iskrivanija meta niġu biex nittrattaw it-temi l-iżjed delikati, imma pjuttost iqegħduna fil-kuntest ta’ dixxerniment pastorali mimli mħabba ħanina, li dejjem issibha lesta tifhem, taħfer, issieħeb, tittama, u fuq kollox tintegra. Din hi l-loġika li għandha tirbaħ fil-Knisja, biex “nagħmlu l-esperjenza li niftħu qalbna għal dawk kollha li qed jgħixu fl-iżjed 54 Forsi bi skruplu, moħbi wara xewqa kbira ta’ fedeltà għall-verità, xi saċerdoti jesiġu mill-penitenti fehma sħiħa li jistqarru dnubiethom bla ebda dell, fejn il-ħniena tisfuma taħt it-tiftixa għal ġustizzja ipotetikament pura. Hawn jixraq li nfakkru fit-tagħlim ta’ San Ġwanni Pawlu II, li afferma li l-prevedibbiltà ta’ waqgħa ġdida “ma tippreġudikax l-awtentiċità tal-fehma” (Ittra tal-Kardinal William W. Baum fl-okkażjoni tal-kors fuq il-foro interno organizzat mill-Penitenzjerija Appostolika [22 ta’ Marzu 1996], 5: Insegnamenti XIX, 1 [1996], 589). 55 KUMMISSJONI TEOLOĠIKA INTERNAZZJONALI, It-tama tas-salvazzjoni għat-trabi li jmutu mingħajr magħmudija (19 ta’ April 2007), 2.
Amoris Lætitia Kapitlu VIII 22 periferiji eżistenzjali differenti li jeżistu”.56 Nistieden lill-fidili li qed jgħixu sitwazzjonijiet imqallba biex jersqu bil-fiduċja lejn kollokju mar-Ragħajja tagħhom u ma’ lajċi li ddedikaw ħajjithom lill-Mulej. Mhux dejjem se jsibu fihom konferma tal-ideat u tax-xewqat tagħhom, imma żgur sa jirċievu dawl li jgħinhom jifhmu aħjar dak li għaddejjin minnu u jkunu jistgħu jiskopru mixja ta’ maturità personali. U nistieden lir-Ragħajja jisimgħu bi mħabba u serenità, bix-xewqa sinċiera li jidħlu fil-qalba tad-dramma tal-persuni u jidħlu fiż-żarbun tagħhom, ħa jgħinuhom jgħixu aħjar u jagħrfu x’inhu posthom fil-Knisja. 56 Bolla Misericordiæ Vultus (11 ta’ April 2015), 15: AAS 107 (2015), 409.
Dokument maħruġ mill-Arċidjoċesi ta’ Malta
u mid-Djoċesi ta’ Għawdex
www.thechurchinmalta.org
www.gozodiocese.org




 
------------
 

 








 







  
 
 
 
 
OSSERVATORE ROMANO: April 8, 2016
Presenting the Apostolic Exhortation harvesting the fruits of the two synods on the family in 2014 and 2015
The Joy of Love
 
 
 
  


Seven curiosities about Amoris Laetitia,

the Pope's document on the family
 
 
 
 
 





















Seven curiosities about Amoris Laetitia,

the Pope's document on the family







Fr Kevin Schembri dwar l-Eżortazzjoni Appostolika tal-Papa Franġisku, Amorist Lætitia
http://laikos.org/AL_KS_CAM.htm
















.


No comments: